America’s Russia Policy Has Failed (Essay Tricks)

By any number of measures, Washington’s Russia policy has failed.(Wonderful Thesis Statement) While ostensibly suffering from diplomatic and economic isolation under a U.S.-led international sanctions regime, Moscow has succeeded in challenging a wide range of American interests, most notably in Ukraine, Syria, and cyberspace. Coming up with a new approach on Russia should therefore be a top priority for either President Hillary Clinton or President Donald Trump soon after Jan. 20, 2017. So far, however, neither candidate has offered a vision that goes beyond the failed tropes of the past, with Clinton painting Russian President Vladimir Putin as a cartoonish villain and Trump viewing Moscow as an ally in-waiting.(what a piece of introductory sentences which reveal the whole crux of an Essay or Article)

Note Note Try to develop this kind of art of writing, connectivity and coherence.

The most common U.S. policy responses to Russia — from both Republican and Democratic administrations across three decades — have depended either on the hope that Moscow can be fully defeated or that it can become a friend and fellow democracy. But Russia is not a democracy, nor is it democratizing, and although Russia may be in secular decline, it is a major power on the world stage. The next president needs to accept that Moscow cannot simply be defeated or contained in the emerging multipolar, globalized world order. It must be engaged through a comprehensive balance of cooperation and competition.(Crux of a Paragraph)

The next president will have to persuade Moscow to cooperate where cooperation is needed on things like preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) while limiting room for Russia to maneuver where its interests largely oppose American ones, such as in Syria. And this new U.S. policy must also recognize that tensions with Russia do not divide neatly along the lines of geography or individual issues, and that even shared interests will seldom overlap entirely. The goal should involve constructing a web of interactions, both cooperative and competitive, that yields the most beneficial balance for our national interests. But above all, rather than setting out to defeat or transform Russia, a new U.S. approach should deal with Russia as it really is. 

1) Understand That It’s Not Just About Putin

The next president must begin by abandoning the two axioms that have plagued Washington’s Russia policymaking for the last 25 years: The first, that Moscow opposes the United States because of the Kremlin’s undemocratic politics. And, secondly, that areas of agreement between the two countries can be walled off from areas of conflict.

It’s also essential to recognize that America’s problems with Russia aren’t solely because of Putin: They’re geopolitical. Neither Putin’s departure nor broader regime change in Russia will resolve this challenge. Putin stands squarely within centuries of tradition in Russian strategic thinking, and his foreign policy enjoys overwhelming elite support while resonating with the public. Geopolitical competition of some dimension is inevitable among major powers with strategic interests stretching across the globe, regardless of what politics they practice at home.

 The next administration needs to break with its predecessors and realize that relations with Moscow can’t simply be compartmentalized into areas of cooperation and disagreement. American actions on one issue will influence Russia’s assessment of U.S. approaches on other issues. The George W. Bush administration, for example, unsuccessfully sought to insulate counterterrorism cooperation following 9/11 from competition with Moscow in the former Soviet space. Barack Obama’s administration hoped to continue cooperation on nuclear security even as overall relations deteriorated sharply. But that, too, failed, evidenced by Russia’s skipping the U.S.-sponsored nuclear security summit in April and suspending the Plutonium Disposition Agreement because of “hostile” American actions last week.

After 1991, successive U.S. administrations attempted to integrate Russia into the West by encouraging its transformation from a totalitarian Communist state into a free-market democracy. At a time of Russian weakness following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Washington also reshaped the structure of Europe by enlarging NATO and supporting the expansion of the European Union. But as Moscow regained its geopolitical strength and expanded its ambitions under Putin, Russia pushed back against U.S. efforts, first in the former Soviet Union, then in Europe, and more recently in the broader Middle East. After 25 years of U.S. and European efforts, Russia has made it clear that it is not interested in integrating into the West and that it is prepared to challenge the United States along a broad front, even by interfering in domestic U.S. politics.

U.S. policy must adapt to new challenges, and Washington may need to give ground on other, lesser priorities. For example, if forced to choose between securing cooperation on nuclear nonproliferation and supporting pro-Western political change in Russia’s neighborhood, a tactical withdrawal on the latter may be necessary to preserve a larger victory on arms control. In other cases, Moscow’s actions that directly threaten vital U.S. interests will demand that Washington impose costs in proportion to the threat, such as supporting NATO allies when Russia deploys its forces or conducts provocative military exercises along their borders.

2) Stop Ukraine From Becoming a Frozen Conflict

Russia’s aggression against Ukraine was the tipping point for the tensions and mistrust that define the U.S.-Russia relationship today. Washington used the pressure of international sanctions and diplomatic isolation to compel Moscow to withdraw from Ukraine. But the Russians responded with countermeasures of their own, and the resulting reciprocal sanctions and warring narratives now combine to block even basic diplomatic engagement.

Making any sort of diplomatic progress with the Kremlin will first hinge on how the next U.S. president interprets Moscow’s motivations in Ukraine: Is Russia primarily holding Ukraine hostage because of its fear of Western encirclement and regime change? Or is Putin exploiting Ukraine’s vulnerability for his government’s political and territorial aggrandizement? The answer is most likely a combination of both, but from a policy perspective it makes sense to operate on the basis of the more positive interpretation, while hedging against the chance of being wrong.

In many respects, the hedge is already in place. NATO has decided to rotate new forces through the Baltic States and stepped up planning for various contingencies involving conflict with Russia. The West’s support for political and economic reform in Ukraine — to help build a competent democratic state and raise standards of living — is another important part of the strategy. But a solution to the crisis in Ukraine will need more than preparing for the worst-case scenario.

A voluntary Russian withdrawal from Ukraine depends for now on the highly flawed Minsk II peace deal signed in February 2015 by France, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine. Despite Minsk’s obvious imperfection, it has two key features that cannot be abandoned: a legal and political commitment undertaken by major European powers and Russia and military de-escalation on the ground linked to a sustainable political process for ending the conflict. Abandoning either element would practically guarantee that eastern Ukraine will become yet another frozen conflict. Although Washington is not a signatory to the deal, the United States can help incentivize Minsk for Moscow by linking specific sanctions relief to concrete Russian steps it can implement to sustain a cease-fire, withdraw heavy military equipment from the zone of conflict, and return control of Ukraine’s side of the border with Russia to Kiev.

3) Have an Honest Talk About Europe

For better or worse, Moscow retains sufficient power to shape the security environment in Europe. In this realm, the task for the next president in shaping U.S. policy will be to insulate European allies againstRussian action in the short term while laying the groundwork for a more durable European security framework, with Russian participation, in the long term.

The next administration’s most urgent and immediate goal should be to maintain the integrity of NATO as the guarantor of European security. In light of Russia’s threatening behavior, many of its neighbors look to the transatlantic alliance, and the United States in particular, for the necessary commitment of manpower, hardware, and political will. Washington must also bolster NATO’s collective defense capabilities, not simply by spending more, but by coordinating efforts and expenditures far better. U.S. leadership in this arena is essential, and American credibility in Europe will be judged not just by what is said and done on the continent, but by Washington’s performance in managing security commitments globally, such as in East Asia and the greater Middle East.

Enhancing the forums in which Russia and the West participate, like the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the NATO-Russia Council, even if they can’t resolve or even manage disagreements, is a necessary step toward preventing conflict. The OSCE, still the only fully inclusive security organization for North America, Europe, and the entire former Soviet space, has an important role to play. Washington should seek to re-launch talks with Moscow and its place in the European security architecture through the body in an unofficial, second track format.

Where these discussions will end up is an open question. But the next administration will have better chances of reducing tensions and building a stable security order in Europe by allowing Russia’s legitimate security interests in the region to be heard.

4) Push for More Arms Control

 Even with reductions in nuclear forces under various arms-control agreements like the new STARTagreement of 2011, Russia is still the only country that can destroy the United States as a functioning society in 30 minutes. Absurd as it may seem more than 25 years after the Cold War, both sides maintain their nuclear forces on hair-trigger alert. That means the possibility of a crisis escalating to a nuclear exchange is still very real, even if the probability remains low. Stability in U.S.-Russia nuclear relations isn’t just one of the most important issues for the two countries, it is also critical to the stability among the world’s other major powers.

In addition, Russia, like the United States, is one of a handful of countries with the scientific prowess and industrial capacity to weaponize new technologies that can change the global balance of power, including the advanced air-defense systems Russia is deploying in Syria and selling to Iran, or cyber-weapons that could cripple critical infrastructure in the United States and elsewhere. As the second-largest arms seller after the United States, Russia can either hinder or facilitate the spread of advanced conventional weapons. Given the speed, accuracy, and destructive power of Russian weaponry, they could affect regional and global stability by eroding a country’s faith in its deterrent capability. Russian sales to Iran, for example, remain a top concern for Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey in the Middle East, while the sale of advanced weaponry to China alarms Japan and South Korea and complicates U.S. efforts to guarantee security in East Asia.

Finally, as the largest non-Western supplier of civilian nuclear technology, Russia can either greatly assist or totally derail international efforts to limit the nuclear ambitions of Iran and North Korea. Given the profound distrust between the United States and Russia, a key step, beyond safeguarding the agreements already in place, would be to promote maximum transparency about each side’s strategic objectives and doctrines for nuclear weapons, advanced conventional weapons, cyber-weapons, missile defenses, and other technologies with the potential to erode either side’s confidence in its deterrent capability. The need for this step has grown even more urgent as Russia’s public threats about its possible use of nuclear weapons have increased, it has suspended arms-control agreements, and has hacked into the Democratic National Committee to disrupt the U.S. presidential campaign.

Russia and the United States will rarely join hands as the world’s nuclear and WMD proliferation police force. That means U.S. policy must contemplate the need to counter Russian moves in sharing weapons and technologies with hostile or potentially hostile countries, like Iran. Washington will also need to compete with Russia when it deploys conventional, cyber, or other capabilities designed to neutralize current U.S. advantages in those areas. Success in maintaining strategic stability and preventing weapons proliferation is vital to U.S. national security, but will demand a careful balance among competing concerns in Europe and East Asia, where the Kremlin has been willing to challenge U.S. interests or hold agreements on strategic stability and nonproliferation hostage until its demands are met.

5) Work With Russia in Asia

Containing China is an impossible task in today’s world. Instead, the next president should pursue flexible coalitions with other major powers to channel Chinese energies in ways that don’t endanger America’s core interests or, better, work to Washington’s benefit. Russia could be one of those partners if the United States is able to avoid forcing the Kremlin into a position of de facto commercial and strategic dependence on Beijing.

Despite its attempts in the wake of Western sanctions to reduce its dependence on European energy markets by building up ties with China, Russia remains deeply concerned about Beijing’s growing influence along its borders. Moreover, the economic promise of Moscow’s own “pivot to Asia,” particularly in penetrating the Chinese market, has so far failed to unfold as the Kremlin had hoped, with trade and investment slow to materialize. In East Asia, Moscow has sought to diversify its commercial relations, including with South Korea and Japan, two major U.S. allies, to reduce the risks that the development of Russia’s far eastern provinces will become hostage to Chinese markets. South Korea and Japan also view Russia as a potential economic and security partner in managing their concerns about China. This leaves an opening where American and Russian interests can align in forging new coalitions that give each party more leverage in relations with China.

Former Soviet Central Asia is another area where Washington’s and Moscow’s interests could actually align on China. Russia is unsettled by the rapidly growing Chinese presence within what the Kremlin considers its own backyard. Beijing’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative, a massive network of roads, railways, and pipelines, has brought billions of dollars’ worth of investment into the region and dwarfed Russia’s projects, like the Eurasian Union. The Kremlin has so far welcomed the emergence of other regional players, such as India and Japan, to counterbalance China. The United States could play a role here if it reversed its policy since the end of the Cold War of seeking to reduce Russian influence in Central Asia. Recognizing that China’s expansion into the region poses more of a long-term challenge to U.S. interests than Russia’s continued presence, Washington should not work against Russian initiatives in the region and promote other regional powers in Central Asia.

6) Recognize That Syria Is About More Than Syria

With the collapse of the U.S.-Russia negotiated cease-fire and the humanitarian catastrophe unfolding in Aleppo, the Syrian crisis demands urgent attention. Like it or not, the United States has no better option than to keep trying to work with Russia, which inserted itself into the region with a dramatic military intervention in September 2015. Moscow has the wherewithal to maintain its military deployment for a prolonged period, and regional powers like Iran, and perhaps even Turkey, support its continued presence. The more forceful options that some are now advocating — such as a no-fly zone or the destruction of the Syrian air force — carry too large a risk of outright military confrontation with Moscow in the region and elsewhere.

Discussions with Moscow on Syria, however, will have no greater chances of success unless they include a new willingness to discuss the broader relationship with Russia, especially in Europe. In its statements and proposals, Moscow has effectively linked the situation in Syria to the Ukraine crisis and the larger issue of European security, but Washington has so far refused to recognize this linkage. Instead, the Obama administration has followed in the missteps of its predecessors and doubled down on trying to compartmentalize issues from one another. Only by acknowledging that the links among the various regional challenges posed by Russia are real can the next president extract a favorable balance for U.S. interests.

7) Show America’s Promise

As in the Cold War, there is an ideological element to U.S.-Russia competition today. However, rather than advocating Communist class struggle, Moscow is focused on diminishing American credibility. Russia will be most effective where U.S.-led economic and political initiatives fail to serve the needs of the American people. This theme has been evident in the disconcerting overlap between damaging cyber-leaks from apparent Russian-related sources to favorable coverage in the Russian press of Trump’s harsh attacks on the U.S. establishment.

How the next U.S. president tackles the well-known domestic and global challenges of wealth inequality, cultural pluralism, migration, resource insecurity, and climate change will determine the degree to which the United States is actually vulnerable to Russia’s political and propaganda broadsides. As George F. Kennan, the U.S. diplomat who mapped out America’s Cold War containment policy toward the Soviet Union, recognized in his famous Long Telegram, if Americans demonstrate vision and resolve to address the United States’ most pressing challenges, the country can have far greater influence on developments in Russia than it ever could through direct confrontation.

The Cold War ended to a great degree because Russians saw the United States as a successful and prosperous society, whose model they hoped to emulate. By contrast, today’s deterioration in relations has been deepened by American failures in Iraq and Afghanistan and the still lingering consequences of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, which shattered Russians’ faith in the American model for economic development. An aura of renewed success and growing power will go a long way toward restoring the United States as an attractive partner, and perhaps eventually as a leader by example.

For the moment, America’s priorities must be on putting out the fires of regional conflicts in Ukraine and Syria and preventing the simmering threats of WMD proliferation and a new arms race from igniting. But success on any one of these issues cannot occur in a vacuum and depends on the credibility and effectiveness of the U.S. approach to other regions and issues where Russia holds important cards. By weighing the value of cooperation and competition with Moscow in terms of what matters most to the United States, the next presidential administration has its best chance to come out ahead in dealing with the Kremlin.

Note: You can convert it into your own language by reproducing ideas, thoughts and linking words in a well-coordinate Essay and topic could be of your choice like “Russian and American influence in the world”.

Note :Read the whole Article-try to brainstorm and then make some solid Thesis Statements, and then convert all of your best ideas into Topic Sentence otherwise called the first topic of any paragraph and support it with solid examples.

Note: If, you develop a habit or reading all of these stuff on daily basis only for one an hour, you can master Essay Writing accordingly. Therefore, read it, rewrite it within stipulated time of 3 Hours and then check it out what are the errors !


America’s Russia Policy Has Failed

Political Instability: A case study of Pakistan(Topic for Essay )


Political instability has become a serious and threatening  problem especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. (Thesis Statement). It is creating massive problems and hindering the development of these countries. The theme of this article revolves around the problem of political stability in context of identity and legitimacy crisis in Pakistan.(Remove this line) Political stability plays an important role in keeping society  integrated and in maintaining legitimacy within the state. It  is a prerequisite for the economic development, social integration, and supremacy of law in a state. The stability of political system has direct effects on the processes of nation and state building. These both require stable political systems for their growth and flourishing. The development of nation and state without firm and organized system of politics is not possible and government becomes only a tug of war amongst various interest groups.(Supporting Sentences) In sum, article endeavors to explore the possible causes and effects of political instability in Pakistan. (Concluding Sentence).

Note: Reproduce this introduction in your own language, but don’t beat about the bush.

Body of an Essay:

The instability of government, inefficiency of political parties, and a weak political culture create the scenario for a politically instable state. Political instability has become a serious problem especially for the developing and underdeveloped countries. This problem is associated with a series of problems in various fields. The problem of political instability generates more serious for a society which is multi ethnic, having people of diverse cultural attributes. In a politically stable state all sections of society get their due shares and are satisfied being a part of a multi ethnic society which ultimately.

This problem is associated with a series of problems in various fields. The problem of political instability generates more serious for a society which is multi ethnic, having people of diverse cultural attributes. In a politically stable state all sections of society get their due shares and are satisfied being a part of a multi ethnic society which ultimately leads towards the nation-building.

In stable conditions people are empowered and exert their energies for the development of nation. Incase of instability the case is vice versa, people feel unsatisfied and powerless, lose their trust on institutions and they prefer their own interest in front of state and ultimately society leads to split.

Political stability is vitally important for the attainment of nation
building, such as political development and national integration, which
has direct influence on formation of political parties. The development
in states-modern or modernizing, takes place due to the varying
degree of political” stability. “It can be regarded as important to
maintain peace, harmony, enduring constitutional contentment’s,
maintenance of government institutions and possession of civic order”
(Michael, 1971). It is often used to refer to democratic political stability.
There are, of course, other kinds of regimes which have relatively
stable political set-ups such as in China, Egypt, Zchecoslvac and so

The extent of the political stability can be measured by the adaptability
of two institutions: State and Society. The variation occurring in one
area will affect the other. In spite of the change in the social system, it
has the capacity to allow change in such a way which can easily meet
the varying challenges of political development.

Many underdeveloped nations of Asia and Africa including Pakistan
have been confounded as how to overcome the problems of
centralization of authority, national integration, economic development,
political participation and social welfare of the modernizing societies
which have grown simultaneously in the political order of these states.

The political stability can be understood more by defining the causes of
the instability in developing states. There are five issue areas as
described by Leonard Binder, which many states are facing while
trying to maintain the stability needed in their political system. These
areas are: “Identity crises, legitimacy Crisis, Penetration crisis,
Participation crisis and distribution crisis” (Lucian, 1971). Without any
doubt these all play a significant role in creating the political instability,
but here in this short paper, researcher will only discuss and stress
upon the first two discussed issues, the identity crisis and the
legitimacy crisis, keeping in view the case of Pakistan.

The identity crisis can be interpreted in many ways into the political
process. It generally ref1ects the sentiments of nationalism and the
desire of the people to live together in a common place. It implies that
the identity crisis is the feeling of individual’s association with the
political system. In the process of political change, an identity crises
Political Instabilityoccurs “when a community guides that it had once unquestionably
accepted as physical and psychological definitions of its collective self
are no longer acceptable under new territorial conditions” (Samuel,
1971). The dismemberment of East Pakistan and present alarming
situation in Sindh and Balochistan are good examples in this regard.
The vast diffusion of communication have also generated this problem,
as the isolated communities have awakened, and eventually helped in
rebuilding the sense of unification of the political system must
inevitably experience when ever its basic forms are substantially
changed” (Samuel, 1968). The lack of national identity or national
loyalty refers to the unwillingness or inability of an individual or groups
or individuals to feel as a part of the state.

This problem has been found in pluralistic societies in the from of
ethnic, linguistic, tribal and religions section. Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka,
Nigeria and now Russia can be referred to this category where the
very existence of the federal system is challenged.

The nature of federal crisis depends largely on “the rate, volume as
well as the content of the regional demands” (Samuel, 1971). When
the pressures of regional demands are carried to an extreme and do
not get satisfactory output response from the national system, these
may transform into a demand for separation or secession from the
federation. East Pakistan’s break (1971) up was due to reason of this
kind. India is almost facing the same problem in the form of uprising in
East Punjab and occupied Kashmir. Canada has been confronted with
Quebec issue. Nigeria has suffered coups and civil wars, Thus
“regionalism is always potential source of danger which may ultimately
undermine the federal system’s maintenance capability” (Lucian 1971).
Therefore, it is evident from the given facts that deterioration of the
political system in pluralistic societies of the developing states,
including Pakistan, has resulted from “the issues of centralization of
authority, national integration, social mobilization, economic
development, political participating and social ‘welfare, Which have
arisen simultaneously in the political order” (Laghari, 1991).

The problem of identity and legitimacy are closely related to each
other. In political socialization process, people generally get more
sense of national identity in stable system, which also provide the
legitimacy of authority. The sense of identity may also be developed by
accepting the legitimacy of the authority. The legitimacy, in fact, is
associated with ‘the performance capacity of the system and the
feelings of the people towards the authority” (Macridis, and Brown,
1912). This implies that the congruence between mass demand for
participation and a positive elite response to those unlimited
expectation of the society are not met, ultimately creating sharp
differences and. some times leading to a state of virtual civil war. The
consequences of the undue play on some seats in 1977 elections
during Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s period and mass agitation against General
Ayub Khan’s rule can be referred to this problem. It is under those
conditions the military often intervenes to control the authority of the
federation. This implies that a balance between demands and
concessions, supports and restraints, expectations and satisfactions
may inculcate the sense of consensus among various communities for
national unification.

Generally, the legitimacy crisis is regarded along with the forms of the
governmental institutions and the authority of the leadership. it can
also be referred to as “a break down in the constitutional structure and
the performance of the government that arises out of the differences
over the proper nature of the authority for political system” (Samual,

In Pakistan, the induction of one unit in 1956, introduction of 1962
constitution by Ayub Khan, frequent constitutional amendments by
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and mal-treatment of General Zia-ul -Haq under
1973 constitution are closely related events in this context.

The legitimacy can also be shaken by misinterpretation of history and
promises of political elite with the masses. This crisis occurs when
people reject the leader’s claim based on historical precedence and his
promises for the accomplishment of his actions. The leaders are
thrown out when they fail to accomplish the promises made for the
development of society. In the developing societies, this type of
projection is quite common. The leaders try to evoke the emotions of
the masses by promising them a better future for the legitimization of
their authority. When these promises are not realized, that ultimately
leads towards a crisis of authority. Ayub Khan introduced “guided
democracy” in the same fashion, which finally became one of the
reasons for his downfall.

The institution of leadership in Pakistan has remained so weak and its
structure is always from top to bottom. The leadership in Pakistan is
based on heredity/ family patterns. In actual the process of becoming a
leader starts from bottom to top, in which the fist step is social welfare
service then entering in political arena. Trends in Pakistan have always
been people are considered leaders because they are the daughters
Political Instabilityor sons of leaders and possess leadership in heredity.
The charisma of family leadership is popular amongst the people
because of lack of education. The lowest literacy rate in people of
Pakistan has played an important role in deciding the right choice for
them; since their choice is made on the basis of their emotions and
charisma of the personality of leaders. The lack of education and
decay of leadership are the two most important contributing factors to
the political instability in Pakistan.

Pakistan’s experience is evident that quality and stability of political
system, and leadership is not possible without quality education. As it
has been discussed that pluralistic societies there are sensitive issues
of langue, religion and ethnicities, here the role of leader becomes
more important than any other factor.

Specially incase of the state and society like Pakistan where various
ethnicities and sects are residing and all these different people
became one nation on the basis of religious commonness and same
aspirations which they could not have in united India where other
religions were not letting them live in peace. When the institution of
leadership in Pakistan split into the levels of sub-national/ ethnic,
provincial and religious/ sectarian by then the problems of legitimacy
and identity started and by the passage of time gained momentum.

The theme of a national leadership lost in these various levels of
leadership. This fragmentation in the leadership gave birth to the crisis of identity
and legitimacy and worsened it by the passage of time. Since people
are not satisfied with the actions of political parties and government
then they start thinking about their existence and identity which
generate negative feelings amongst people for government and all

The other form of leadership existed in Pakistan for a long time has
been dictatorship. The army rule spawns about almost on three decades, and these
decades did not let the democratic politics take roots in a newly
established state. The experience of an army rule for a newly
established state is worst as compare to the state which is politically

Here in Pakistan with the establishment of a new state every sphere
was to be set up and directed including politics that was misdirected
through recurring military intervention.

K.K Aziz defines the difference between political leadership and
dictatorship that political leadership works through compromise, give
and take and consultation on the other hand dictator does not work
accountability system and he considers leaders of other parties as
rivals. The most affected of this military rule has had been the society,
means the common people who took part and sacrificed in order to
attain freedom from foreign rule and Hindus. The Muslims of India
aspired to establish a society of their own. The political culture was
corrupted in these decades and its impact continued even after this
because a true democratic system could not be evolved. The
dictatorial political set up had split the political parties, and splitting of
political parties led to the inclusion of various political alliances and
groups in the main stream of national politics and obviously all these
groups were not aimed at revival of democracy their motive was just to
share power. (2001)

Aziz writes about the political trends in Pakistan that “The political
history of Pakistan and the way the game of politics has been played
so far have ensured a weakening of the democratic spirit and a
corresponding strengthening of the dictatorial ghost.” (2001:129)
Next contributing factor to the instable political conditions of Pakistan is
weak political organization of political parties of Pakistan. Political
parties of Pakistan are not properly organized from their inside
structure, absence of party elections, domination of any family or group
or ethnicity on the party and which limits the scope of party in terms of
its voters and specially aims and objects which shrink as well and
loses the national character.

The weak organization and improper working of political parties paves
the way for coalition governments, which has become a very common
set for every government and they exert their whole energy for
maintaining the coalition set up and remain in continuous pressure
from partner groups.

It also affects the policy making both internal or external arenas. The
successful implementation of domestic and foreign policies requires
strong support from people, but improper functioning of political parties
do not provide people a plat form rather it splits and exploit the public
opinion for their own interest. The mushroom growth of religious and
ethnic parties and groupings with in the parties has made the political
scenario a messy play ground where ever one is playing the game
according to his own rules and preferring own interests. Leaders use
Political Instability religion, sect or ethnicity to raise the emotions of people then exploit
them for their own purposes. Since religion has remained a sensitive
issue in the society so most of the leaders involve religion in political
matters. People do not have any clear choice amongst these same
parties, since because of lack of education they cannot use their
political rights and make a party of their own rather than depending on
old parties and conventional politics.

The present political trend in Pakistan is forming coalitions amongst
different political parties, which is the reason of current instable
conditions. Coalition set up is considered temporary arrangement in
political scenario everywhere in the world; since it is based on interests
of various groups and when they are not served it is broken and leads
to more instable conditions.

Lack of clear majority of anyone political party also shows that people
do not trust any of these partners that is why all enjoy less support. It is
the clear will of people which is the expression of their choice and
establishes a stable political system strongly supported by the
common masses.

Another significant factor which has contributed and worsened the
problem of political instability is the dysfunction of federal system. The
people of various cultures exerted to obtain a separate home land
where they can prosper shattered because of faults in maintaining a
just federal system. This led to the increase in mistrust on national
leaders and more trust on ethnic leadership who exploited the
emotions of people for their selfish interests. The unjustified acts and
emotion provoking acts of the leaders made people question their
identity and legitimacy again after the independence; the best example
of Bangladesh can be referred here.

A federation can not exist or survive without a spirit of partnership and
co-operation between the provinces and centre. Equitable treatment
and mutual respect are the basic requirement for the success of any
federal structure. Considering the geo-political and socio-economic
structure of Pakistan, the diverse cultural, tradition and distance of one
wing from the other, Pakistan could only survive through democratic
institutions. Where power could be shared by the people of the two
wings on an equitable basis. In Pakistan the politicians who advocated
for centralized administration, only served their own interests and the
class interests of the ruling elite. In the process it was only east
Pakistan but the other smaller provinces like Sindh, North West
Frontier and Balochistan also went through the same process of neglect and exploitation. Because of the geographical situation

Moreover, the indirectly contributing factor towards the worsening
political situation is external interference of other powers for their
selfish interests. In the already disturbed conditions their interference
made the scenario worst. Pakistan is a rich country in terms of
important minerals, gas and important coasts the quest of resources
and being a gate way towards the hot waters has made Pakistan an
attractive country for external powers.

It has been observed that the “developing countries of Asia and Africa
have shown more concern in consolidation the problem of national
unity and’ authority than in the development of the economics of the
nation” (David, 1965). If we consider the case of Pakistan, it seems
quite agreeable that adequate economic growth could only be possible
if there are stable institutions in the political order. The political stability
can be achieved if legitimacy of the institutions and personal legitimacy
of the ruler has been solved.

The political stability is a pre-condition for the nation-building, and nation-building is a process necessary for the survival and development of a nation. The process of nation-building works twofold, it works towards identity formation of a nation which results in integration of society, and obviously an integrated society plays an important part into state-building that includes the development of administrative infrastructure of the state.

The consequences of political stability are to be felt everywhere in the realms of economics, society and politics. Pakistan a nation having rich resources, fertile land, intelligent people, important strategic location, and being an atomic power is a case of serious political instability which is suffering from weak and ineffective external and internal policy making, discontinuation of policies, less coherent society, an obscure image on the global stage having its future questioned by the world.

A politically stable state satisfies every section of society in all dynamics and accommodates pluralities; a result people become more loyal to the state and the sentiment of nationalism establishes amongst them and citizens regardless of their differences feel a part of the national entity. The example of developed states can be referred in this context. The Political Instability societies of developed states are more pluralistic than Pakistan be more coherent and pursuing the national goals equally. The root cause is the strong leadership that has shaped the contours of society. The leadership in these state is not divided into communities or sects or ethnicities rather on they on ideologies. Society also form their opinion according to ideologies that which one they prefer to come into the government.

The developed societies because of being educated are more
politically aware and possess clear public opinion on matters of
national importance. The contribution of a learned society towards the
politics is obviously different then the underdeveloped and less
educated society. Education make the people exert their all energy
towards state-building and a healthy approach towards state and
society. One more thing is considerable here that along with education,
developed state because of sincere leadership provide all basic
necessities to their citizens which is missing in underdeveloped
The pompous negative effect of the political instability is, it split’s the
society on various grounds because all sections of society are not
satisfied with the actions of governments and a situation of mistrust
prevails in all society.
The dissatisfaction and mistrust of society leads it towards the
pursuance of individual interests and ignorance of national/ collective
interests. The negative forces external and internal obviously benefit
from the vacuum created because of instable conditions.
The problem of political stability in the context of identity and legitimacy
crisis in Pakistan has been sharpened mainly due to the effects of
rapid socio-political mobilization and, excessive and un institutionalized
role of civil and military bureaucracy, which has unbalanced the entire
political order of the country. The social and economical change has
also multiplied political demands and broadens political participation.
These “changes have undermined traditional political institutions and
enormously complicated the problem of creating new bases of political
associations and institution” (Samuel, 1971).
The escalation of demands and competition of different communities
for scarce resources have politicized communal divisions and tensions
between provinces, and inability of political institutions to possess the
capacity to respond to the escalation of demands has ultimately lead
to, the identity and legitimacy crisis in Pakistan.
A.P. Memon, K.S. Memon, S. Shaikh and F. Memon
Political instability in any state is the best opportunity for the external
interference, anti-state elements, and pressure groups for the
exploitation of their own selfish interests.
The present political instability in Pakistan has raised the external and
internal challenges for its society and state. Pakistan is facing serious
challenges specially in the realms of politics and economics. The
global world is providing aid and assistance to Pakistan but in
presence of insincere leadership and political instable conditions the
huge foreign aid is not generating any positive results.
The present world is a global world where every field is determined by
intense competition: state craft, conduct of diplomacy, effective policy
making, and strong economy are the most important challenges every
state has to face. Political instability in any state leads to chaos and
disorder amongst the units.
In global world the trends of establishing substantial regional blocks
with other states and joining economic and security alliances is gaining
momentum and these affiliations makes a state an important partner of
the global world. Now pre-requisite for joining these alliances is strong
political and economic conditions of a state, if a country is not stable
enough in political and economic realms no state will be ready to make
weak states as their global partners and they will be left behind the
global stage.
The recurring coups and destabilization of democratic governments
has periled the future of people of Pakistan. Pakistan has already
suffered from huge losses in form of separation of its East wing
because of political instability and is still suffering from continuous
conflicts amongst the units. All federating units especially Balochistan
and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwah are experiencing the serious impacts of
political instability.
The instability poses challenges in the realms of national security,
societal cohesion, national economy, facing war of terrorism, policy
making, integrating in the world politics and economy, gaining global
The most important and immediate challenge the political instable
condition of Pakistan is creating is mishandling of issue of war on
The war on terrorism is affecting badly the internal conditions of the
Political Instability
state and as well as its external relations with other states. The
instable political set up is not letting any clear and effective measure
along with policies for the issue of terrorism.
Since September 2008 USA leading the NATO forces started attacking
frontier areas of Pakistan and violated the sovereignty of Pakistan in
the name of combating terrorism and chasing the terrorists may be
hiding in these areas. These attacks are increasing by the times.

Pakistan is already a victim of severe terrorism, further foreign attacks on its territory has exploited the situation. The people of Pakistan specially residents of frontier areas have feelings of insecurity, lost their trust on government and army, and feeling of this mistrust could lead to furious results ultimately. The persistent worst domestic conditions because of internal terrorism and external threats of attacks have almost bankrupted the economy and discouraged the foreign direct investment. It has become the biggest challenge for Pakistan to cope international pressure and face the internal reactions in shape of severely instable economy, resentment of people, lack of peoples’ trust on government and hatred for army, withdrawal of peoples’ support to policies and actions of government, terrorist attacks in major cities, isolation in global world like calling back of diplomats’ families to station because Pakistan is no more a safe place to live and closure of embassies like UK and USA .

This situation has endangered the future of Pakistani people who are now considering Pakistan an insecure place. The assurance of national security of Pakistan in face of international pressure and increased continuous external interference is a challenge which government has to cope in a way that interests of its own people and global world should be fulfilled. Pakistan is in danger both from external and internal realms. The security of the world has endangered Pakistan’s survival. The ignorance of sovereign status of Pakistan, unawareness of external world from important strategic facts about the area, public opinion of the common masses, and lack of proper investigation and clear strategies towards the solution has created the deteriorated scenario and posing a serious danger to its national
interest and security.

The present and immediate need of the time is a stable political system, since Pakistan has to combat inside terrorism, has to face and convince its own people that this war is necessary , and Pakistan has to satisfy its allies and as well as neighbors and manage the pressure that Pakistan is taking positive steps to counter the situation. In this context nobody else knows the ground realities except Pakistan. The main problem in this whole scenario is lack of trust amongst Pakistan and the allies and neighbors keep exploiting the situation. Pakistan and also half of the world has had experienced the adverse effects of Cold War. Pakistani society, and economy have still not recovered from the negative after effects of Cold War and after the incidence of nine eleven this War of Terrorism is another challenge of global politics. In this situation, the future of Pakistan is largely influenced by the way government handles the serious issues relating and arising from war of terrorism like economy and society.

The immediate effect of this worst law and order situation is a worst for the already aid driven economy of Pakistan. (Topic Sentence)The lack of interest by the foreign investors for foreign direct investment, and giving Pakistan access to the lucrative markets are making economy stagnant and more prone to rely on foreign aid. The improper use of aid on the huge disasters like earth quake in 2005 and on the wake of flood in 2010 has lost the trust of donors to support Pakistan sufficiently even in most difficult times. The instability of the system and accordingly the unaccountability of the public servant to the masses has created and raised the practice of corruption as an accepted tradition. The foreign world mentioned the issues mishandling and clearly said that they would prefer the nongovernmental organizations to perform the task rather than giving direct aid too the government employees. The situation of mistrust of the foreign world on political structures of Pakistan has created a complex scenario for the people of Pakistan who are the real suffers of all this situation including weak economy, natural disasters and political instability.

The prosperity and heath of society and economy is not largely but wholly solely dependent on the stability of the political system of the state, and a cure for the possible ills arising from the dysfunction of the system.

Source of Material

Click to access political%20instability%20-%203.pdf

How to write a Paragraph?

Define, and explain your ideas so that you write clear, well-developed paragraphs and discussion posts:

  1. Step 1: Decide the Topic of Your Paragraph. …
  2. Step 2: Develop a Topic Sentence. …
    1. There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada’s cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.
  3. Step 3: Demonstrate Your Point. .There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada’s cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live…
  4. Step 4: Give Your Paragraph Meaning. …
  5. Step 5: Conclude.
    1. There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada’s cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.
  6. Step 6: Look Over and Proofread.

Every paragraph in a paper should be:

  • Unified: All of the sentences in a single paragraph should be related to a single controlling idea (often expressed in the topic sentence of the paragraph).
  • Clearly related to the thesis: The sentences should all refer to the central idea, or thesis, of the paper (Rosen and Behrens 119).
  • Coherent: The sentences should be arranged in a logical manner and should follow a definite plan for development (Rosen and Behrens 119).
  • Well-developed: Every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately explained and supported through evidence and details that work together to explain the paragraph’s controlling idea (Rosen and Behrens 119).

Step 1. Decide on a controlling idea and create a topic sentence

                       Model controlling idea and topic sentence

Slave spirituals often had hidden double meanings.

Step 2. Explain the controlling idea

                      Model explanation

On one level, spirituals referenced heaven, Jesus, and the soul; but on another level, the songs spoke about slave resistance.

Step 3. Give an example (or multiple examples)

                     Model example A

For example, according to Frederick Douglass, the song “O Canaan, Sweet Canaan” spoke of slaves’ longing for heaven, but it also expressed their desire to escape to the North. Careful listeners heard this second meaning in the following lyrics: “I don’t expect to stay / Much longer here. / Run to Jesus, shun the danger. / I don’t expect to stay.”Model example BSlaves even used songs like “Steal Away to Jesus (at midnight)” to announce to other                             slaves the time and place of secret, forbidden meetings.

Step 4. Explain the example(s)

                     Model explanation for example A

When slaves sang this song, they could have been speaking of their departure from this life and their arrival in heaven; however, they also could have been describing their plans to leave the South and run, not to Jesus, but to the North.Model explanation for example B

[The relationship between example B and the main idea of the paragraph’s controlling idea is clear enough without adding another sentence to explain it.]

Step 5. Complete the paragraph’s idea or transition into the next paragraph

                    Model sentence for completing a paragraph

What whites heard as merely spiritual songs, slaves discerned as detailed messages. The hidden meanings in spirituals allowed slaves to sing what they could not say.

Connector Necessary for Developing a Concise and comprehensive Paragraph

Similarity also, in the same way, just as … so too, likewise, similarly
Exception/Contrast but, however, in spite of, on the one hand … on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet
Sequence/Order first, second, third, … next, then, finally
Time after, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, then
Example for example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate
Emphasis even, indeed, in fact, of course, truly
Place/Position above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there
Cause and Effect accordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus
Additional Support or Evidence additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then
Conclusion/Summary finally, in a word, in brief, briefly, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, to sum up, in summary

 Must watch

A Harvard linguist reveals the most misused words in English

Some languages, like French, have an official body that decides how words can and cannot be used.

English, as a flexible, global language, has no such designated referee.

Therefore, there is no definitive answer to whether you’re using a word “correctly.”

It’s all a matter of taste and context. But there are opinions. And some count more than others.

Steven Pinker is probably as good an expert to ask as anyone. Helpfully, the renowned Harvard linguist and best-selling authorrecently wrote a book, titled “The Sense of Style,” that aims to help readers improve their use of the English language.

If you’re in the market for an update to , old Strunk and White, it’s probably a good buy. But if you just want to spot-check that you’ve not been making embarrassing language mistakes for years, a monster list of 58 commonly misused phrases covered in the book that recently appeared in the UK’s Independent newspaper is probably a good place to start.

Here are some highlights:

  1. Adverse means “detrimental.” It does not mean “averse” or “disinclined.” Correct: “There were adverse effects.” / “I’m not averse to doing that.”
  2. Appraise means to “ascertain the value of.” It does not mean to “apprise” or to “inform.” Correct: “I appraised the jewels.” / “I apprised him of the situation.”
  3. Beg the question means that a statement assumes the truth of what it should be proving; it does not mean to “raise the question.” Correct: “When I asked the dealer why I should pay more for the German car, he said I would be getting ‘German quality,’ but that just begs the question.”
  4. Bemused means “bewildered.” It does not mean “amused.” Correct: “The unnecessarily complex plot left me bemused.” / “The silly comedy amused me.”
  5. Cliché is a noun, not an adjective. The adjective is clichéd. Correct: “Shakespeare used a lot of clichés.” / “The plot was so clichéd.”
  6. Data is a plural count noun not, standardly speaking, a mass noun. [Note: “Data is rarely used as a plural today, just as candelabra and agenda long ago ceased to be plurals,” Pinker writes. “But I still like it.”] Correct: “This datum supports the theory, but many of the other data refute it.”
  7. Depreciate means to “decrease in value.” It does not mean to “deprecate” or to “disparage.” Correct: “My car has depreciated a lot over the years.” / “She deprecated his efforts.”
  8. Disinterested means “unbiased.” It does not mean “uninterested.” Correct: “The dispute should be resolved by a disinterested judge.” / “Why are you so uninterested in my story?”
  9. Enormity refers to extreme evil. It does not mean “enormousness.” [Note: It is acceptable to use it to mean a deplorable enormousness.] Correct: “The enormity of the terrorist bombing brought bystanders to tears.” / “The enormousness of the homework assignment required several hours of work.”
  10. Hone means to “sharpen.” It does not mean to “home in on” or “to converge upon.” Correct: “She honed her writing skills.” / “We’re homing in on a solution.”
  11. Hung means “suspended.” It does not mean “suspended from the neck until dead.” Correct: “I hung the picture on my wall.” / “The prisoner was hanged.”
  12. Ironic means “uncannily incongruent.” It does not mean “inconvenient” or “unfortunate.” Correct: “It was ironic that I forgot my textbook on human memory.” / “It was unfortunate that I forgot my textbook the night before the quiz.”
  13. Nonplussed means “stunned” or “bewildered.” It does not mean “bored” or “unimpressed.” Correct: “The market crash left the experts nonplussed.” / “His market pitch left the investors unimpressed.”
  14. Parameter refers to a variable. It not mean “boundary condition” or “limit.” Correct: “The forecast is based on parameters like inflation and interest rates.” / “We need to work within budgetary limits.”
  15. Phenomena is a plural count noun — not a mass noun. Correct: “The phenomenon was intriguing, but it was only one of many phenomena gathered by the telescope.”
  16. Shrunk, sprung, stunk, and sunk are past participles–not words in the past tense. Correct: “I’ve shrunk my shirt.” / “I shrank my shirt.”
  17. Simplistic means “naively or overly simple.” It does not mean “simple” or “pleasingly simple.” Correct: “His simplistic answer suggested he wasn’t familiar with the material.” / “She liked the chair’s simple look.”
  18. Verbal means “in linguistic form.” It does not mean “oral” or “spoken.” Correct: “Visual memories last longer than verbal ones.”
  19. Effect means “influence”; to effect means “to put into effect”; to affect means either “to influence” or “to fake.” Correct: “They had a big effect on my style.” / “The law effected changes at the school.” / “They affected my style.” / “He affected an air of sophistication to impress her parents.”
  20. Lie (intransitive: lies, lay, has lain) means to “recline”; lay (transitive: lays, laid, has laid) means to “set down”; lie (intransitive: lies, lied, has lied) means to “fib.” Correct: “He lies on the couch all day.” / “He lays a book upon the table.” / “He lies about what he does.”

It should be noted that while it’s always good to polish up your writing, one of the joys of language is that it isn’t fixed in time. It evolves. Nor is there a single “correct” style (in English, at least).

You’d neither connect nor impress if you chose your words like an Oxford don at a rap battle (though, actually, someone please make that YouTube video), and you’d be unlikely to get a job at an investment bank today speaking like Shakespeare.

Why is this important? It’s easy to get too caught up in being perfectly “correct” and become a tedious language snob. Remember you probably want to come across as intelligent and thoughtful, not uptight and pedantic. So don’t get so worked up over the little things that you miss the larger point of good writing — to communicate clearly and engagingly with your chosen audience.


The 58 most commonly misused words and phrases

Whether you’re trying to sound sophisticated or simply repeating what you’ve heard, word fails are all too common and can make smart people sound dumb.

In his latest book, “The Sense of Style,” Harvard cognitive scientist and linguist Steven Pinker explores the most common words and phrases that people stumble over.

The book is like a modern version of Strunk and White’s classic “The Elements of Style,” but one based on linguistics and updated for the 21st century.

Since there is no definitive body governing the rules of the English language like there is for the French language, for example, matters of style and grammar have always remained relatively debatable. Pinker’s rules and preferences are no different, but the majority of the words and phrases he identifies are agreed upon and can help your writing and speaking.

We’ve highlighted the most common mistakes according to Pinker using examples directly from his book along with some of our own.

Here are the main ones to look out for:

• Adverse means detrimental and does not mean averse or disinclined.

Correct: “There were adverse effects.” / “I’m not averse to doing that.”

• Appraise means to ascertain the value of and does not mean to apprise or to inform.

Correct: “I appraised the jewels.” / “I apprised him of the situation.”

• As far as means the same as but cannot be used the same way as as for.

Correct: “As far as the money is concerned …” / As for the money …

• Begs the question means assumes what it should be proving and does not mean raises the question.

Correct: “When I asked the dealer why I should pay more for the German car, he said I would be getting ‘German quality,’ but that just begs the question.”

• Bemused means bewildered and does not mean amused.

Correct: The unnecessarily complex plot left me bemused. / The silly comedy amused me.

• Cliché is a noun and is not an adjective.

Correct: “Shakespeare used a lot of clichés.” / The plot was so clichéd.

• Credible means believable and does not mean credulous or gullible.

Correct: His sales pitch was not credible. / The con man took advantage of credulous people.

• Criteria is the plural, not the singular of criterion.

Correct: These are important criteria.

• Data is a plural count noun not, standardly speaking, a mass noun. [Note: “Data is rarely used as a plural today, just as candelabra and agenda long ago ceased to be plurals,” Pinker writes. “But I still like it.”]

Correct: “This datum supports the theory, but many of the other data refute it.”

• Depreciate means to decrease in value and does not mean to deprecate or to disparage.

Correct: My car has depreciated a lot over the years. / She deprecated his efforts.

• Dichotomy means two mutually exclusive alternatives and does not mean difference or discrepancy.

Correct: There is a dichotomy between even and odd numbers. / There is a discrepancy between what we see and what is really there.

• Disinterested means unbiasedand does not mean uninterested.

Correct: “The dispute should be resolved by a disinterested judge.” / Why are you so uninterested in my story?

• Enervate means to sap or to weaken and does not mean to energize.

Correct: That was an enervating rush hour commute. / That was an energizing cappuccino.

• Enormity means extreme evil and does not mean enormousness. [Note: It is acceptable to use it to mean a deplorable enormousness.]

Correct: The enormity of the terrorist bombing brought bystanders to tears. / The enormousness of the homework assignment required several hours of work.

• Flaunt means to show off and does not mean to flout.

Correct: “She flaunted her abs.” / “She flouted the rules.”

• Flounder means to flop around ineffectually and does not mean to founder or to sink to the bottom.

Correct: “The indecisive chairman floundered.” / “The headstrong chairman foundered.”

• Fortuitous means coincidental or unplanned and does not mean fortunate.

Correct: Running into my old friend was fortuitous. / It was fortunate that I had a good amount of savings after losing my job.

• Fulsome means unctuous or excessively or insincerely complimentary and does not mean full or copious.

Correct: She didn’t believe his fulsome love letter. / The bass guitar had a full sound.

• Homogeneous is pronounced as homo-genius and “homogenous” is not a word but a corruption of homogenized.

Correct: The population was not homogeneous; it was a melting pot.

• Hone means to sharpen and does not mean to home in on or to converge upon.

Correct: She honed her writing skills. / We’re homing in on a solution.

• Hot button means an emotional, divisive controversy and does not mean a hot topic.

Correct: “She tried to stay away from the hot button of abortion.” / Drones are a hot topic in the tech world.

• Hung means suspended and does not mean suspended from the neck until dead.

Correct: I hung the picture on my wall. / The prisoner was hanged.

Intern (verb) means to detain or to imprison and does not mean to inter or to bury.

Correct: The rebels were interned in the military jail. / The king was interred with his jewels.

• Ironic means uncannily incongruent and does not mean inconvenientor unfortunate.

Correct: “It was ironic that I forgot my textbook on human memory.” / It was unfortunate that I forgot my textbook the night before the quiz.

• Irregardless is not a word but a portmanteau of regardlessand irrespective. [Note: Pinker acknowledges that certain schools of thought regard “irregardless” as simply non-standard, but he insists it should not even be granted that.]

Correct: Regardless of how you feel, it’s objectively the wrong decision. / Everyone gets a vote, irrespective of their position.

• Literally means in actual fact and does not mean figuratively.

Correct: I didn’t mean for you to literally run over here. / I’d rather die than listen to another one of his lectures — figuratively speaking, of course!

• Luxuriant means abundant or florid and does not mean luxurious.

Correct: The poet has a luxuriant imagination. / The car’s fine leather seats were luxurious.

• Meretricious means tawdry or offensively insincere and does not mean meritorious.

Correct: We rolled our eyes at the meretricious speech. / The city applauded the meritorious mayor.

• Mitigate means to alleviate and does not mean to militate or to provide reasons for.

Correct: The spray should mitigate the bug problem. / Their inconceivable differences will militate against the treaty.

• New Age means spiritualistic, holistic and does not mean modern, futuristic.

Correct: He is a fan of New Age mindfulness techniques. / That TV screen is made from a high-end modern glass.

• Noisome means smelly and does not mean noisy.

Correct: I covered my nose when I walked past the noisome dump. / I covered my ears when I heard the noisy motorcycle speed by.

• Nonplussed means stunned, bewildered and does not mean bored, unimpressed.

Correct: “The market crash left the experts nonplussed.” / “His market pitch left the investors unimpressed.”

• Opportunism means seizing or exploiting opportunities and does not mean creating or promoting opportunities.

Correct: His opportunism brought him to the head of the company. / The party ran on promoting economic opportunities for the middle class.

• Parameter means a variable and does not mean a boundary condition, a limit.

Correct: The forecast is based on parameters like inflation and interest rates. / We need to work within budgetary limits.

• Phenomena is a plural count noun — not a mass noun.

Correct: The phenomenon was intriguing, but it was only one of many phenomena gathered by the telescope.

• Politically correct means dogmatically left-liberal and does not mean fashionable, trendy. [Note: Pinker considers its contemporary roots as a pejorative term by American and British conservatives, not its more casual use as meaning inoffensive.]

Correct: “The theory that little boys fight because of the way they have been socialized is the politically correct one.” / Williamsburg is the trendy place to live in Brooklyn.

• Practicable means easily put into practice and does not mean practical.

Correct: His French was practicable in his job, which required frequent trips to Paris./ Learning French before taking the job was a practical decision.

• Proscribe means to condemn, to forbid and does not mean to prescribe, to recommend, to direct.

Correct: The policy proscribed employees from drinking at work. / The doctor prescribed an antibiotic.

• Protagonist means active character and does not mean proponent.

Correct: “Vito Corleone was the protagonist in ‘The Godfather.’ ” / He is a proponent of solar energy.

• Refute means to prove to be false and does not mean to allege to be false, to try to refute. [Note: That is, it must be used only in factual cases.]

Correct: His work refuted the theory that the Earth was flat.

• Reticent means shy, restrainedand does not mean reluctant.

Correct: He was too reticent to ask her out. / “When rain threatens, fans are reluctant to buy tickets to the ballgame.”

• Shrunk, sprung, stunk, and sunk are used in the past participle — not the past tense.

Correct: I’ve shrunk my shirt. / I shrank my shirt.

• Simplistic means naively or overly simple and does not mean simple or pleasingly simple.

Correct: His simplistic answer suggested he wasn’t familiar with the material. / She liked the chair’s simple look.

• Staunch means loyal, sturdy and does not mean to stanch a flow.

Correct: Her staunch supporters defended her in the press. / The nurse was able to stanch the bleeding.

• Tortuous means twisting and does not mean torturous.

Correct: The road through the forest was tortuous. / Watching their terrible acting for two hours was a torturous experience.

• Unexceptionable means not worthy of objection and does not mean unexceptional, ordinary.

Correct: “No one protested her getting the prize, because she was an unexceptionable choice.” / “They protested her getting the prize, because she was an unexceptional choice.”

• Untenable means indefensible or unsustainable and does not mean painful or unbearable.

Correct: Now that all the facts have been revealed, that theory is untenable. / Her death brought him unbearable sadness.

• Urban legend means an intriguing and widely circulated but false story and does not mean someone who is legendary in a city.

Correct: “Alligators in the sewers is an urban legend.” / Al Capone was a legendary gangster in Chicago.

• Verbal means in linguistic form and does not mean oral, spoken.

Correct: Visual memories last longer than verbal ones.

• An effect means an influence; to effect means to put into effect; to affect means either to influence or to fake.

Correct: They had a big effect on my style. / The law effected changes at the school. / They affected my style. / He affected an air of sophistication to impress her parents.

• To lie (intransitive: lies, lay, has lain) means to recline; to lay (transitive: lays, laid, has laid) means to set down; to lie (intransitive: lies, lied, has lied) means to fib.

Correct: He lies on the couch all day. / He lays a book upon the table. / He lies about what he does.


Essay Writing and Current Affairs Approach!

These days most of the candidates are baffled with how to write an Essay? in this regard sometimes they follow some books, some read articles and some read research papers, if you have good information about any topic, then you can develop and Essay out of an Articles, Research Papers or from a Book.

A lot of energy is required to continue with this task, therefore, if you encounter with any Essay just search topic, read it and then reproduce in  your language as if you are sitting in Exam Hall.

Refrences: (you can download some of the best ones Topics for Current Affairs as well for Essay Stuff.)

China and Pakistan: Friends in Deed Islamabad: NUST Publication, 2016, pp.125-138

China Pakistan Economic Corridor and Regional Economic Development Challenges and Opportunities 

Dr. Nazir Hussain

The CPEC is an ambitious project aims at changing the geo-economic dynamics of Pak-China relations and boosting the trade activity in the region.(Thesis Statement) It envisages infrastructure development, upgrading rail and road links, creation of energy projects and establishing exclusive economic zones. The multi-billion dollar project offers a long term investment in Pakistan involving the regional countries as well.(wonderful style of use of optimistic thoughts and sudden change of thought and therefore, the writer has used however in order to show some challenges as well) However, the project is being challenged with implementational issues, domestic controversies and external opposition. At the same time, the security guarantees provided by Pakistan Army, a parliamentary committee to oversee the fast-track completion of the project and chances of regional connectivity raises the hope for its success. Nevertheless, the success of the CPEC depends on political resolve and successful implementation of the project in full spectrum. (Thesis Statement)
The above said paragraph is one of the best ones for Essay-writing Skills.

Key Words:

CPEC, Geo-economics, Economic Connectivity, Trade and Energy Corridor

Outline-Can be made by you by reading the very first line of a any Paragraph by reading all paragraphs of a Research Papers.

Examples of Takes Ideas/Thoughts for Outlines

1. Due to the regional security environment (idea), Pakistan has suffered in the last few decades hampering its economic progress and development(supporting sentences/Examples).
2. Though China is ready to invest multi-billion dollars (idea/thought) for the project but Pakistan’s domestic politics, controversies over route, terrorism (Supporting examples) and long time period for its completion cast heavy shadows on the Corridor project.
China and Pakistan have been forging ties since 1950 and 2015 brought positive aspects to thisrelationship in the face of CPEC framework signed by the two states. CPEC is a well thought out framework which will usher great economic/trade activity in the region and will reshape many economic policies in the coming years. For Pakistan, it presents a catalyst for change and for China it is means to showcase its over-arching economic reach to the regions for its successful culmination of ‘One Belt, One Road’ policy.
Even though the project faces many challenges, the opportunities it presents are also massive and must not be overlooked. How the two states overcome these challenges would manifest their resolve and the commitment to this project, and how will the major powers respond to this marvel is yet to be fully determined. But it is for sure that the new age bringing new dynamics of economics and geography will only give thrust to a new kind of warfare in the shape of CPEC and OBOR to be the new battleground for competition and rivalries among the states.

The write is very optimistic in his first paragraph but in the later one he shares that through there are some difficulties but all of them can be resolved by only will and commitment.

Relevant Guidelines for AD IB 2016

Suggested Areas for Preparation

1-ENGLISH —40 %

a- GRE Master Vocb. List (3500 words)
b- Practice of Verbal Section of Gre
c- Special Emphasis on Vocab.Antonym/Synonym, sentence Completion, Analogies (Gre & SAT), Correction(GMAT),Reading Comprehension (GRE & GMAT)

2-Math —-20%

a- Dogars Aptitude & GRE MATH
b- 8th Class Math (English Medium) – Punjab Text Book Board
c- Special Emphasis on Statement Qs of Ratio,Proportion, %age, profit/loss, interest, L.C.M, H.C.F., odd/even, prime/cmpound,
d- Basic Algebra and Geometry (Area, diameter, perimeter, circumference, volume of Triangle, rectangle, square, circle and parallelogram etc.
e- Venn Diagram can help in many tricky arithmetic Qs.
f- Pythagorean theorem & Cartesian Coordinates

Dont be scared with this prolixity ,U dont ‘ve to be a Math wizard for this test.All u ‘ve to do is to come up with a problem-solving mind looking for snare , tricks and designs.The purpose is not to assess ur math formulae database but ur mental alacrity & ability to think out-of-box.Anybody with no math-milieu at all but with an above-average I.Q can score 15+ out of 20.

3- Genearl Knowledge —40%

When faced this most feared, expansive & unpredictable section of the test
we find ourselves at a loss. Any how, INVOKING tO ALMIGHTY’s HELP, we may set for this odyssey too. Last years thrust in G.K was on Pak Studies.
WE, However, better pay due heed to all areas which include,among other things:

a- Pak Studies MCQS (ADVANCE publishers or/and any other quality book in this area)
b- Current Affairs MCQS (I dnt know any book but perhaps Dogars monthly digest may help a bit)
c- Islamiyat & ( only a Few Qs from these areas )
d- Special Focus : Capitals, currency, foreign delegates into & from Pakistan, Conferences, Regional & global Summits, PM/President’s Visits Dates, Venues, and Names of Envoys, founding dates of imp organizations of pak & world.Pak movement Dates & Events & Personalities. Name of authors of Books on Pak.St

1- Ratti Jinnah ‘s age : a-27 b-28 c-29 d-30
2- NLC founded in : a-1978 b-1979 c- 1980 d-1981
3- Ojri Camp Debacle; (1988) a-apr10 b-apr13 c-may13 d-jun23
4- Capital of Azerbijan: a-Daushanbe b-Baku c-Almaty d-Minsk

These are among a few Qs that I still remember were part of 2006 test.
This was a bit I could ,presently,do as I m engaged in a host of things,all of them exacting a workaholic from this naive , rustic and humble fellow.


Paper of IB

1.What is the Current Islamic year:—– 1433
2.How many haj performed by Hazrat Mohammad pbuh—1
3. Where was last revelation revealed——-during hijatul wida
4.What is the shortest surah: kausar
5.Which surah is the heart of Quran: yaseen
6.Who was given the title of Ghaseel ul malaika: Hanzilla(r a)
7.What is the no. of total *surah: 114 (non of these)
8.What is the first month of Islamic calendar: moharram
9. Hazrat Mohammad PBUH called himself
10.last revelation at ?:Hijja tul widah.
11. What was arfa karims age is the time of death:16
12. Who is us ambassador to Pakistan:cameron mentor
13. Who is Pakistan ambassador to united nations: abdullah haroon
14. Where does business train go to and from: lahore-karachi
15. What is the name of Oscar winning documentary of shirmeen:saving face
16. What drug was reported to be the cause of death in the Punjab institute of cardiology: Isotab
17. What is the cost of stamp of arfa karim released on her birthday:Rs:8.
18. Who is Pakistan ambassador to US: Sherry rehman19. Who is the first female foreign affairs minister of Pakistan: Hina Rabbani
20. What is the cause of mehran bank scandal:illegal fund to politicians
21. Which English crickerter was jailed for spot fixing:
22. Where were academy awards,2012 held: Los Angeles
23. Christain wulff who resigned as head of state belonged to which country:Germany
24. Who is the secretary of state of US: hillary
25. What is the total no. of ammendements in 1973 constitution:20
26. Where are Olympic 2012 going to be held: London
27. Pakistan beat England in test series in what ratio: 3
28. Who is the secretary general of united nations: Ban ki moon
29. WHO recently declared which country as polio free:India
30. Which is the largest seaport of Pakistan: karachi( not 100%)
31. Where is arfa karim software park located:lahore(ferozpur Rd)
32. Where is Benazir shaheed international airport: Islam Abad33. Who is the current cricket chief selector of Pakistan:iqbal qasim
34. On which river has mangla dam been built:jehlum
35. What is the boundary between Afghanistan and Pakistan:durand Line
36. Where is siachin glacier:baltistan
37. Pakistan derby horse race,2012 was won by which horse:Assasin
38. Who is the current chairman of senate:nayyer bukhari( option was missing)
39. What does light year measure?: distance( b/w) stars*
40. Which is the hardest substance on earth:diamond
41. What happens to temperature of boiling water on a higher elevation:decreases
42. Which disease is caused by dogs:rabies
43. What is the temperature of human body in farhenheits:98* option was none of these
44. Swimming pool water is disinfected by which chemical: chlorine
45. Blindness is caused by deficiency of which vitamin…VIT —A
46. Vitamin c is richest in which fruit:guava
47. Soda water is carbonated by adding what:co2
48. One mile has how many kilometres:1.60934
49. What is the unit of energy:joule
50. What is the filament of electric bulb made of:tungston
51. What is added in lead pencils:graphite
52. How does sunlight enter the rooms?:irregular reflection(not 100% sure)
53. How many colors are visible in the sunlight spectrum:7
54. Which substance is liquid at room temperature? Mercury
55. Which of these is negatively charged? Electrons
56. What happens to volume of water when it freezes:increases by 1/10
57. Which party has the highest no. of seats in senate after 2012 electionsp
58.Amir khan is ?:british national
60.age of son was 1/3 of his father 5 years back if current age is 30 then father’s age?:80( now)
61.x:3=4:6 then x=2 of student in a class is 30 3/5 are girls boys will be?:12
63.A student gets 68 marks and therefore gets 85% total marks are?:80
64.diamond is a: material noun
65.police?: diverted the route
66.mean of 10, 30, y, and 50 is * *50 then y=110.
67.smallest natural no:1
68.smallest prime no: 2
69.30% of total amount is left after spending 280 rupees , total amount is:4000.
70.perimeter of a square is 20cm length of one side shall be?:5 cm absence of facts we can ?: infer
72) 10×10 (that star is actually power of 10 as zero,i dont know how to insert zero)= right option was 0

73) 2,6,18,54,_____ answer was 162 in next

74)A man has 180 pens and 9 of them are blue ,how much % has he blue pens.correct answer was 5% but there was 6% so non of these was right.

75) a boy has 68 marks that is 85% ,what were total marks??
88) 85) 80) non of these??i wrote non of these

76) a man bought a thing on 120 rupees and he has 25% discount.what is actual price he paid?
77) 95) 120) non of these) 90was correct answer

78). Smallest Natural Number? 1
79) Smallest Prime Number? 2

80) Five years ago, age of father was thrice the age of son. If son is 30 years old now, whats the current age of father? 80

81) 30% amount of total is left after spending 280 rupees. what was the amount before spending? 400
82). Mean of 10, 30, Y, and 50 is 50. Y is? 110
83). Boy can type 1350 words in 30 minutes, how many he could type in 5 minutes? 225
84). Perimeter of Square is 20, Length of one side is? 5cm
85)number of student in a class is 30. 3/5 are girls. then how many boys are there in class ? girls are 18 then boys are 12.
86)X:3=4:6 then x = ? 2.
87)32-15*2+3= ? 5.
88)Afridi is one of those who never submits to the miseries of his life.( something like this was given= submit

89)- Shrimps are available in the market,…… they are good source of earning foreign exchange.
90) In absence of facts we can—–about the real reason.
1) Conclude 2) deduce 3) deduct 4) infer ——————-conclude correct

91) He set two alarms so as to—–that he woke up on time?
a) Assure b) reassure c)ensure D)confim —————confirm is correct

92) The word round in “He took round in” is—-parts of speech?
a) verb b) noun c) adjective————- round is a adjective

93 where is the siachin glacier a)boltistan
94. what is the clinical use for temperature A)farienheit

You are master of your destiny!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


How to Cover Assistant Director IB Federal Government Jobs (Paper one MCQs)


Note: Go though fpsc recent advertisement and apply online.

Test Pattern:

Objective Type Test (MCQ)

Part-I English = 20 marks Part-II General Intelligence Test=80 marks

Part-I Vocabulary, (Exploring the world of English)

Grammar Usage, (Brush Up your English by S.T Imam)

Sentence Structure (Same as above)


 Basic Arithmetic.(Sohail Bhatti’s IQ/ISSB Book

 Current Affairs.(same)

 Pakistan Affairs & Islamic Studies (Same)

 Everyday/General Science Note : (Chaudhary Ahmed Najeeb’s  Book on General Knowledge MCQs)

IB Paper 18 Jan, 2009

General Knowledge

1. Which cell has no nucleus:
a. Red blood cells
b. white blood cells
c. Nerve cells
d. Muscle cells

2. Human body normal temperature in Celcius:  37.5

3. Cause of depletion of Ozone:
a. Chlorofluorocarbons
b. Pollution

4. Ice melting at poles is because of:
a. Chlorofluorocarbons
b. Global Warming
c. Green House Effect
d. Ozone depletion

5. Scientists form which country won most noble prizes in 2008
a. USA
b. UK
c. Germany
d. China

6. Panda by origin belongs to:
a. China
b. Japan
c. Australia
d. Africa

7. North pole of compass points to:
a. North
b. South
c. East
d. West

8. Bali is an Island of:
a. Indonesia
b. Malaysia

9. Gobi desert is located in
a. Asia
b. Africa
c. Europe
d. USA

10. OIC Head quarter is in which country:
a. Saudia
b. Pakistan

11. Punjab was invaded by British in:
a. 1857
b. 1810
c. 1849

12.Allama Iqbal publicly demanded separate state for Muslims in: 1930

13. 14 points of Quiad in the year:
a. 1929
b. 1941
c. 1945
d 1935

14. The author of book “Now or Never”
a. Ch. Rehmat Ali

15. Creator of National Anthem of Pakistan
a. Sufi Tabassum
b. Hafeez Jalandhari
c. Allama Iqbal

16. Length of Indus river
a. 1000 km
b. 2000 km
c. 3000 km
d. 4000 km

17.Pakistan’s national animal is:
a. Markhor
b. Neil guy
c. Parrot
d. Black deer

18. Mountain range where earthquake 2005 came:
a. Karakuram Range
b. Hindu Kush Range
c. Himalaya Range

19. When was Pakistan formally named as,” Islamic Republic of Pakistan”
a. 1973
b. 1956
c. 1947

20. Who dissolved one unit:
a. Ayub Khan
b. Yahya Khan
c. Zulfiqar Bhutto
d. Zia ul Haq

21. Area of Pakistan in Million (Square Kilometer) in round figures is about :
a. 0.6
b. 0.7
c. 0.8
d. 0.9

22. Cultural Center of Gandhara civilization :
a. Taxila

b. Mohinjodaro
c. Multan

23. No. of total member countries in Security Council
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20

24. No. of planets in solar system
a. 9.
b. 8
c. 7
d. 10

25. UNO agency that looks after the welfare of workers
a. ILO

26. Muslim league founded in which city:
a. Karachi
b. Dhaka
27. No. of Senate seats in Pakistan :
a. 50
b. 100
c. 150
d. 200

28. Who killed Abu-Jahal?
a. Maooz
b. Maaz
c. Both
d. None of them

29. Martin Luther King was famous for
a. Human Rights
b. Labour Rights
c. Freedom Fighter

30. Madam Curie is known for:

a. carboactive material
b. Radio activity
31. 3rd June 1947 Plan was about

a. partition of sub-continent.

32. Winter rains in Pakistan come from ?

a. Arabian sea
b. Mediterranean sea
c. Pacific Ocean
d. Bay of Bengal

33. How many bones are there in human body?

a. 206
b. 300
34. Abusive drugs damage cells of

a. Brain
b. Heart
c. Lungs
d. Muscles

35. On US map Alaska State is on

a. North
b. West
c. South
d. Away from the main land

36. The age of the earth (in million) is:

a. 3
b. 3 1/2
c. 4
d. 4 ½

37. Oldest mountains in Pakistan
a. Murree Hills
b. Karakuram Range
3. Hindu Kush Range

38. General Secretary of UNO
a. Kofi Anan
b. Moon
39. Current elections in USA won by party:
a. Republican
b. Democrats
40. No. of total member countries in Security Council
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20

41. Mudarba is called (Mudaraba is a concept to provide capital to somebody undertaking the work.)
a. mode of investment.
b. Bank

42.Afforestation Stands for
a. cutting of trees,
b. protection of trees ,
c. planting of trees

43. The effect of leakage of natural gas on the human body is:-
a. inactive body
b. Difficulty in breathing

44. how many chemicals found in human body?
a. 21
b. 31
c. 41
d. 51

45. 9/11 refers to
a. Air Attack
b. Earthquake
c. Tsunami

46. Panama canal separates Alaska from South America.

47. On boiling egg hardens which indicates the presence of
a. Carbohydrates
b. Proteins
c. Fats

48. Which one is a Scandinavian Country?
a. Germany
b. USA
c. UK
d. Norway (that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and related languages)

49. What is the current literacy rate of Pakistan?
a. 34%
b. 46%
c. 50%

50. Which one is a Law making body?
a. Court
b. Administration
c. President
d. None of these I think it is parliment which was not mentioned. I replied it (None of above). Plz clarify

51. The Speed of Sound in air is?
a. 1000 km
b. 1100 km
c. 1200 km
d. 1300 km

52. Which letter in a dictionary has most words and phrases?
a. R
b. P
c. A
d. S

53. In modern television Cathode Ray Tube is replaced with:
a. Amplifier
b. Transmitter
c. Integrated Circuit

54. Major export of Pakistan is:
a. Rice
b. Fruits
c. Cotton

55. What are Capital goods?
a. Manufactured goods
b. Goods used for further production)
c. Export goods

56.Lahore declaration is related to
a. PPP
b. OIC

57.Big rocks break due to
a. evaporation
b.freezing water
d. None of these

58.Best soil for agriculture is
a. top soil
b. sub soil
c. clay
d. loam

59.They reached ……. the meeting point.
d. at

60.Abide … the rules/laws?
a. to
b. by
c. with

61.He has reached ….the same conclusion
a. on
b. to
c. at
d. over

62.She opened the door ….. let the cat in.
a. hence
b. and
c. but
d. so

63.Shazia …. I must tell the truth.
a. either
b. or.
c. and

I.B. Paper 2007
1. What was the last surah to be revealed?    Al-Nasar
2. Which mosque did Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered to abolish?  Zarar
3. In which Hijri wine was prohibited?  5 Hjri
4. Who was the first female Shaheed of Islam?  Saamia
5. Who wrote the highest number of Ahadith?  Huraira
6. Complete the series: 1, 5, 17, 85, ___ ?  257

7.student needed 35% marks to pass an exam. He secured 235 marks and failed by 29 marks. What was the total marks?  750
8. If 2x + 2x + 2x = 12 then what is the value of x in 2x – 1 3
9. A man invested Rs. 3000 for 4 months and got some profit. How much money should he invested to get such a profit in a month?  12000
10. The average of 8 numbers is 12. If each number is increased by 2, the average of the new set of numbers is ?    14
11. When Women Protection Bill was passed?   15 November 2006
12. Where is the headquarter of OPEC?   Vienna
13. Headquarter of World Young President Organization is in? Irving, Texas
14. Who was the first Principal of MAO College?  Professor S. Mercado
15. Pakistan left Commonwealth in 1972 when Bangladesh was recognised by Commonwealth. When did Pakistan rejoined Commonwealth as 49th member?  1991
16. Who was the first Secretary General of UNO?   Trygve Lie

33. When Risala-Isbabe-Bagwat-e-Hind was translated into English?

Causes of the Indian Revolt(Risala-Isbabe-Bagwat-e-Hind) 1858, Eng Trans., 1873   by Sir Syed Ahmed

34. When Nehru Report was presented? 28 Aug 1928
35. Number of Muslim Delegates who attended Round Table Conference. 16
36. Who is the author of book ” ”
37. When Red Cliff Award was announced? 15 Aug 1947
38. Who was the first General in West Bengal after Division of Bengal? M. K. Narayanan
39. Who was Secretary when 1861 act was promulgated?
40. What is Bande Mataram? A song


Do you want to Qualify FPSC for the post of Assistant Director Intelligence Bureau? Then no problem. Just go through this.


Always crack paper then prep for it. Identify the areas and then go ahead.


  2. I am a doctor (doctor is subject, object)
  3. Who caught the snake (passive voice)
  4. Spick and span means neat and clean
  5. Filth means dirt
  6. Podium means an elevated platform.
  7. Lavish means generous.
  8. Horse =mane or moan.
  9. Farthest word of sage is
  10. Adulation is
  11. Hidebound antonym open mind.
  12. There have been stop bumps on road to prevent/avoid accident.
  13. I can’t hear you, what are you …………
  14. If you want good language, you must ……..speak
  15. Procrastinate ….means
  16. Abominable means …. Appalling, disgusting.
  17. Rescind….. Revoke
  18. Collateral….security for loan
  19. Knave means
  20. Whole night sea…..arise, rise, raise
  21. We built craft ………..strong to hold us (too, much)
  22. Seedy antonym moral activities
  23. Boggle antonym quick to accept
  24. Indolent :sloth analogy wrathful :ire
  25. Juggernaut: inexorable analogy
  26. Ricochet :bullet analogy
  27. Delicate :fastidious analogy
  28. Castigated antonym reward
  29. Montage means picture or film
  30. Docent means a teacher at university who is not regular member of the university
  31. Tactile means connected with the sense of touch
  32. Diptych means religious painting
  33. Diorama means a model representing the scene in a figure
  34. Shrimps are found in the markets which are great source of foreign exchange. Correct it shrimps which are great source of foreign exchange found in market?
  35. The word round in “he took round in “is ……in parts of speech noun
  36. Brain prevailed ……his friend to sell his car to me( over)
  37. One of the players ……highest goals in the tournament. Scores
  38. He sets two alarm clocks so as to ……….that he did not oversleep
  39. As the cloud darkened, it soon became obvious that a storm was…..
  40. He …….that it was 5 o’clock (realized, recognized, resolved).
  41. The word “hoping to enter the university “is a (clause, phrase, sentence).
  42. In the absence of facts we can …….from the facts. (Infer, deduct. Deduce).
  43. Afridi is one of those who never submit to the miseries of the life. (Submit).
  44. Where ………his books? (Did he put)?
  45. Diamond as a part of speech is …… material noun.
  46. Due to the shortage of fuel the government has asked the public to …….consumption (exclude, reject, economize).
  47. Police had to …….to another road as there was terrible riot going on. (Divert, desert, delude, and derive).
  48. She was ………the people present. (Between, in, besides, among).
  49. I can’t even think…..borrowing money. (Of, for, with,).
  50. His books …….next week. (Will be published, will publish).
  51. He is…………fame and money. (Indifferent to, enamored of, running for, struggling for).
  52. Bilawal is travelling ………..the school. (To, towards, through, off).
  53. Abstruse means. Difficult to understand.
  54. Vacuous means. Showing no sign of intelligence or sensitive feelings
  55. Foe antonym
  56. Melancholy antonym
  57. Plant: forest::……(home, roof)
  58. Cloth: towel:;…lens (eyeglass)
  59. Late: early::……sprightly (exhausted)
  60. Supermarket: cereal::pharmacy…….(aspirin)
  61. Qualm means….distress, impunity, persevere, scruple)
  62. Cagey means… calm, curved, confused, cautious
  63. Generic means….general, cheap, fresh, elderly
  64. Warp means…..defame, evil, harm, wrong
  65. Sumptuous means…..gorgeous, perilous, luxurious, delirious
  66. Definition of adverb
  67. Spell of heavy in adverb form….heavily,
  68. Do you like oatmeal cookies… oatmeal is noun
  69. Which of the following is not adjective… early, elderly, lonely, cost

                                                        GENERAL KNOWLEDGE 

  1. Indus River originates from…. Tibet
  2. Five rivers join each other at
  3. The dam under construction on river Indus is….diamer-basha dam.
  4. Paktika province is located at ……Durand line border b/w Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  5. Pakistan’s under construction gas project is with…..
  6. Pakistan import palm oil and tin from which country……
  7. Saindak mines are which type….. (Horizontal, vertical).
  8. The water in tunnels of tarbela is used for……electricity generation.
  9. Pakistan gives India MFN status in order to…..boost bilateral trade.
  10. Pakistan opposed India on having permanent seat in……
  11. The Tamil rebels in 1980-90 in which country? Srilanka.
  12. Capital of South Africa? (Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein, none of above).
  13. Neighboring country of India in east where Muslims are being killed is…..Myanmar.
  14. Who used chemical weapons against masses in Syria……government forces?
  15. When the international media did aired the news of hakimullah mehsud’s death…
  16. Whom did PM Gillani termed condalizza rice (Condi) of their government’ ms Nargis.
  17. Ms: Nargis sehti has domiciled of…… (Punjab, sindh, balochistan).
  18. How many ulemas have issued the fatwa on Musharaf that he is wajib-ul-qatal….
  19. Who won the T20 world cup in 2009 against srilanka….Pakistan?
  20. How many articles are in the constitution of 1973…..
  21. Capital of Saudi Arab is…..Riyadh.
  22. Umpire Aleem Dar of Pakistan was awarded how many times….3 times.
  23. Governor of the state bank of Pakistan is……
  24. Pakistan’s Naseem became fastest athlete woman in…..south Asia.
  25. Who holds the power of selecting cricket player…..chairman board?
  26. Which is not member of SAARC ……? Maldives, china, Bhutan, Sri Lanka.
  27. Pakistan ambassador to United States…. Jalil Abbas jilani.
  28. First female foreign minister of Pakistan is …..Hina Rabbani khar.
  29. The current PM of UK is……. David William Donald Cameron.
  30. The Olympic Games held in 2012 in ……London.
  31. Nobel peace prize winner 2011….3 females.
  32. Diamer-basha dam will produce electricity…..4500 MW.
  33. Air blue crash was due to….. (Atmosphere pressure, temperature, speeds of air, direction of air).
  34. Famous ghazal singer died recently is…… jagjit Singh.
  35. Autobiography book controversial yours is of……. Shoaib akhtar.
  36. Bill gates belongs to ……
  37. Steve jobs is dead, was founder of …..
  38. Afghan president recently killed was…..Burhanuddin Rabbani.
  39. Sanction imposed on Syria by….. (USA and UK,france and Canada)
  40. Where is kishangana dam constructing by India….Kashmir neelam-jhalum?
  41. A national person of congress is related with….
  42. Currency of Malaysia is……
  43. Next Olympic will be held in……Rio de Jenario.
  44. Al-gore received Nobel prized for …..Global warming.
  45. Pakistan bought Gawadar from…..Oman.
  46. US vice president is……Joe Biden.
  47. Mountain range b/w china and Pakistan is…..Karakoram.
  48. Adidas is the company of….Germany.
  49. Head quarter of international transparency is in….. Berlin.
  50. Nike slogan shows…..swoosh.
  51. Largest country of Africa is….Algeria.
  52. Gas pipeline b/w Pakistan and Iran is called peace pipeline.
  53. UN meeting holds every last Tuesday of……September.
  54. 2012 Australian open was won by….Novak jacovic.
  55. “Hitachi” a Japanese word means…..rising sun.
  56. Argentina’s capital is……. Bueones aire.
  57. Number of seats in national assembly….342.
  58. Largest dam in Pakistan is…..tarbella.
  59. The constitution of Pakistan 1973 was promulgated on….14 august 1973.
  60. Local government system was inaugurated on …….14 august 2001.
  61. Swat included in Pakistan on………28 July 1969.
  62. Bin qasim port is located in……Karachi.
  63. Radio stations at the time of partition were….3.
  64. Sui gas was discovered in Pakistan in ……
  65. Who have veto power in UNO general assembly……none of the above?
  66. Largest wool industry is in……Russia, Australia.
  67. Total area of forest in Pakistan is……
  68. Which year is known as suicide year…..?
  69. Largest commercial bank in Pakistan is…..
  70. Largest salt mines of Pakistan are at….Khewra.
  71. Religious terrorism is based on…..belief, opinion, viewpoint, all.
  72. Law and order impact on…….country, nation, and community.
  73. Emerging power of Pakistan is…
  74. ECO head quarter is located in……. Tehran Iran.
  75. Arab league head quarter is in……Cairo Egypt.
  76. Object of the council of Europe is to……unity b/w it member nations.
  77. McMahan is boundary b/w …..China and India.
  78. Largest airport of Pakistan is ……Jinnah international airport Karachi.
  79. Where is Afghanistan situated ……in west of Pakistan.
  80. When women protection bill was passed ……
  81. Where is the head quarter of OPEC…Vienna?
  82. Head quarter of the world young president organization is in…
  83. Who was first principal of MAO College……
  84. Pakistan left commonwealth in 1972 when Bangladesh was recognized by common wealth. When did Pakistan rejoin common wealth as 49th member….
  85. Who was the first secretary general of UNO……
  86. When Nehru report was presented……28 august 1928.
  87. Number of Muslim delegates who attended first round table conference…..
  88. When red cliff award was announced…..
  89. Who the first general in west Bengal after division of Bengal……
  90. Who was secretary when 1861 act was passed…..
  91. What is bande mataram…a song?
  92. When Risala-isbabe-baghwat –e-hind was translated in English…..
  93. IMF was formed in……
  94. Where UN University is….Japan.
  95. What is siachin ironically means….wild roses.
  96. Who was the president of North Korea at the time of nuclear explosion…..
  97. Statute means… by parliament.
  98. What troika means……
  99. Number of SAARC countries is…..
  100. Ban ki moon belongs to which country…..South Korea.
  101. UNSC has its head quarter in which country….new York city USA.
  102. OIC head quarter is situated in which city….Jeddah Saudi Arabia.
  103. When will US forces withdraw from Afghanistan announced by obama…2014?
  104. Basher hafez al asad is the current what of Syria….president.
  105. What is the national flower of Pakistan……jasmine?
  106. Name of the park where Lahore resolution was passed… Iqbal Park.
  107. Who was the main person in Allahabad address…allama iqbal?
  108. First constitution of Pakistan was passed in which year….1956.
  109. Sindh ML passed what resolution in 1938….separate federation.
  110. Pakistan resolution in Punjab assembly was seconded by…moulana zaffar ali khan,
  111. Highest civilian award of Pakistan is…..nishan-e-Pakistan.
  112. Naval head quarter of Pakistan is in which city……
  113. Last constitutional amendment is….
  114. Acting president in absence of president in Pakistan is….. Chairman senate.
  115. 7th NFC award was in which year…
  116. The mega project to irrigate Baluchistan is…kachi canal.
  117. Gawadar built with the collaboration of which country….china.
  118. Petroleum sector is regulated by……OGRA.
  119. Result of 1937 election for Muslim league….failed to form government in any province.
  120. First mughal emperor was…..Babar.
  121. Muslim league formed in….30 dec. 1906.
  122. In Pakistan main source of power is …..
  123. First constitution written in the history is…Magna Carta.
  124. What was the age of Arifa karim when she died…16 years?
  125. Who is the US ambassador to Pakistan…..Cameron mentor?
  126. Who is Pakistan ambassador to UN……
  127. Where does business train go to and from …..?LHR-KHI.
  128. What is the name of Oscar winning documentary of shirmeen…? Saving faces.
  129. What drug was reported to be the cause of death in Punjab institute of cardiology…iso-tab
  130. What is the cost of post stamp of arifa karim released  by government  on her birthday…Rs=8.
  131. What was the cause of mehran gate scandal……distribution of money to politicians?
  132. Which English cricketer was jailed for spot fixing…whites field.
  133. Where the academy awards 2012 were held…los angels.
  134. Christian wulff who resigned as head of state belonged to which country…Germany.
  135. Who is the secretary of state of USA…..
  136. Who is the secretary general of UNO…. Ban ki moon.
  137. WHO recently declared which country polio free country…India?
  138. Which is the largest sea port Pakistan….karachi?
  139. Where the arifa karim software park is located…..Lahore.
  140. Where is the Benazir shaheed international airport….Islamabad?
  141. Who is the current cricket chief selector of Pakistan……
  142. On which river had mangla dam built….jhelum?
  143. What is the boundary b/w Pakistan and Afghanistan….Durand line?
  144. Where is siachin glacier……
  145. Pakistan derby horse race 2012 was won by which horse….assasin.
  146. Who is the current chairman of senate…..syed nayyer bukhari?
  147. Amir Khan the boxer is the citizen of……
  148. Which party has the highest number of seats in senate……pppp?
  149. What is the capital of Libya……Tripoli?
  150. Head of state bank of Pakistan is…..governor bank.
  151. Simla deputation was headed by….sir agha khan.
  152. First president of Indian national congress was…..
  153. D -8 summits was held on……. In Islamabad.
  154. Knowledge of past is called……history.
  155. The gold medal in hockey in London Olympic was won by……
  156. In May 2015 pakistan and china signed deal of 46 billion dollars


  1. Source of Islamic jurisprudence are…..Quran, Sunnah, ijma, qiyas, and ijitihad.
  2. What is qiyas? Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning in which the teaching of Quran are compared and contrasted with those of the hadith.
  3. What is ijitihad? (Arabic :ijitihad,:”diligence” is an Islamic legal term that means “ independent reasoning” or the utmost effort an individual can put forth in an activity.
  4. The share of state in spoils of war is…….1/5.
  5. Hazarat Abu bakar (R.A) allowed state servants to withdraw salary of which ratio…as per minimum need of an ordinary person.
  6. The first mosque built by the holy prophet PBUH was……masjid-e- quba.
  7. A partnership where profit and loss shared among the parties is shared….
  8. Which prophet stayed in the abdomen of fish …… hazarat Younas R.A.
  9. Longest surah of the holy Quran…..Baqarah.
  10. Name of Imam Bukhari is……..Muhammad ibn Ismail.
  11. In surah Bismillah is mentioned twice…. Al Namal.
  12. Name of the surah which does not start with Bismillah…Al- Tauba.
  13. Hajji gathers at waquf-e- Arafat on….. 9 zulhaj.
  14. Who accompanied the holy prophet during hijrat……hazrat Abu bakar (R.A)?
  15. Saifullah sword of GOD was the title of ……..
  16. Nisab of zakat on gold is …..1/2 Toula.
  17. First migration of the prophet PBUH was…..
  18. Companion during first migration …11 men, 4 women, total 15.
  19. Who has been regarded the lion of Allah…… Hazarat Ali (R.A).
  20. Daughter of hazarat Omer R.A married the holy prophet PBUH……
  21. Old mosque on the earth is…..Masjid-e-Quba.
  22. The holy prophet PBUH had ……3 sons.
  23. Angel used to convey message to the holy prophet PBHU is….Hazart Jibrael A.S.
  24. Who verified the prophet PBUH……Varqa bin Naufeel.
  25. The first revealed surah is…….Al- Alaq.
  26. First recommended muezzin of Islam is….Hazarat Bilal R.A.
  27. How many stages are in the holy Quran….7?
  28. Meaning of momin in Islam is…..who believe and obey ALLAH.
  29. Completion period of the holy Quran……22 years and 5 months.
  30. What is meant by makroh……which is not haram but not appreciable.
  31. Battle in which Muslim women first participated….ohud
  32. How many articles are to be believed by a Muslims….5 articles?
  33. What was the last surah revealed ……AL- Nasar.
  34. In which hijiri wine was prohibited…..
  35. Which mosque did the holy prophet PBUH ordered to abolish…..Zarar?
  36. Who was the first female shaheed of Islam….Hazart Sumaya R.A.
  37. Who wrote the highest number of ahadith…..Abu Huraira?
  38. What is meant by Muqtadi…….
  39. Names of Holy prophets mentioned in the Holy Quran…..
  40. The name of person who has been declared Ashabi without seeing the holy prophet…Hazrat OWAIS QARNI R.A.
  41. The holy Quran was first translated in …….language in the subcontinent. Persian.
  42. Usul-e- Fiqah was first written by….
  43. Al-Hidaya was written by……
  44. Numbers of Hudood mentioned in the Holy Quran are…..
  45. Total books of Shi Sita……
  46. Who is called Ravi…….
  47. What is the current Islamic year …….
  48. How many hajj the holy prophet PBUH performed…..1.
  49. Where last revelation was revealed ……Hijjat-ul-Widda 10 Hijiri.
  50. What is shortest surah of the holy Quran……surah kausar?
  51. Which surah is the heart of the holy Quran….surah yasin?
  52. Who was given the title of Ghaseel ul Malika…..
  53. What is the number of total surahas …..?114.
  54. What is the first month of Islamic calendar …..?Muharam.
  55. Hazrat Muhammad PBUH called himself….Teacher.
  56. Where is kutiba-e-hajj given….Arafat?
  57. City of hadith is called….
  58. Al-Hudaibiyah treaty was scribed by……
  59. Jam-i-Tirmizi was compiled by….
  60. Name of Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique R.A was….
  61. Who was considered Quran as the creature of Allah….
  62. Mawatta book is written by…
  63. How many chapters are in book Jami….
  64. Hadith is which source of sharia…..

 Every Day Science

  1. Water consists of which elements……Hydrogen and oxygen.
  2. Study of celestial bodies is known as….Astronomy.
  3. Unit of measuring the distance b/w stars is……Light year.
  4. What is optic fiber is used for…..Communication.
  5. Neutron bomb damages…..
  6. Which is the largest gland in human body….Liver?
  7. How much liters of blood is present in human body…
  8. Shape of human heart is …..Conical.
  9. Which of the following is more elastic…plastic. Paper, iron, rubber.
  10. Protein is digested in……
  11. One unit of electricity is……Kilowatt Hour.
  12. Anthrax vaccine belongs to……Louis Pasteur.
  13. Light is the unit of ……Distance.
  14. Cubic centimeter is the unit of….Volume.
  15. Primary colors are……
  16. Motion of body from one point to another is called….Kinetic motion.
  17. Slipping on ice is due to…..less friction.
  18. While stepping up on mountain, nose bleeding is due to…..
  19. Gas necessary for human body is…..Oxygen.
  20. Shape of bag with huge volume is……..Rectangular.
  21. Birds up ward and on ward movement are due to…
  22. Centripetal force is…..upward, down ward, inward.
  23. Rain drops spherical shape is due to….Surface tension.
  24. W is the unit of …..Power.
  25. Food energy is in ….Calories.
  26. Peanut is a type of…..Dry oil.
  27. How many muscles are in human body….600?
  28. Which liquid that does not wet the glass….Mercury.
  29. Which one is the iron constitute in the blood…Hemoglobin (Hb).
  30. Waste product of industry directly affects…..Atmosphere.
  31. Composition of soap is…..
  32. Presence of water vapors in the air is called…Humidity.
  33. Combustion is also called….Burning.
  34. Blood system in human body is ……open system, closed system.
  35. Nearest planet to the sun is ….Mercury.
  36. Emerald is of…..Green color.
  37. First man- made element is…..
  38. Bacteria belongs to……kingdom……Monera, plant, animal.
  39. Fats are carrier of which vitamin….B, A, K, B12.
  40. Outer layer of skin is called…..Epidermis.
  41. Boiling point of Acetone is….65, 56, 78.
  42. In plant oils are stored in …..Seed, stem, leaves, roots.
  43. 1 meter is equal to how many feet……
  44. Fresh fruits and food contain …..Protein, vitamin,
  45. Sound travels in water……than air…..much slower. Much faster.
  46. X-rays detects….. Wood .all of above.
  47. Which of the following gas is used in extinguisher…carbon dioxide?
  48. Cooking gas is the mixture of….methane and oxygen.
  49. Iron articles rust because of…..
  50. Water is purified through the process of …..Chlorination.
  51. Dry ice is…..solid carbon dioxide.
  52. Chemically diamond is…..Pure carbon.
  53. Which is mixed with rubber to make it more flexible…?
  54. Cause of dysentery is…..
  55. ……gas is used in fire cylinder. Carbon dioxide
  56. ……..acid is used in the car batteries.
  57. Which element in the earth crust has maximum oxides…..
  58. How can we turn other metals in to gold….
  59. Name acid used in the laundry soap….
  60. Which is not good insulator of heat….wood, iron, wool.
  61. Main gases of green houses are….
  62. Friction is not present in…….swimming, walking, slipping on the ice.
  63. What is protecting earth from radiations of sun….Ozone layer?
  64. Instrument used to measure humidity of atmosphere is…..Hygrometer.
  65. Branch of science that deals with the study of sound …..Acoustic.
  66. Environment friendly resources are ….
  67. Prism splits light into……..colors. Seven colors.
  68. Effect of heat on the temperature of boiling water is…. None.
  69. Natural way of keeping the soil fertile is…..Crop rotation.
  70. In respiration process during night time plant releases….Carbon dioxide.
  71. For burning which gas is necessary…..Oxygen.
  72. Device which does not store data…..
  73. Fish respire through…..Gills.
  74. How do the planets stay in the orbit around the sun….Gravitational force?
  75. Which is the hottest planet of the solar system…Venus?
  76. Heart rate of normal human being is…..72/minutes.
  77. Deficiency of iodine causes…..Endemic goiter.
  78. Which is the hardest substance on the earth…..Diamond?
  79. What happens to temperature of boiling water on a higher elevation….Decreases?
  80. Which disease is caused by dogs…..Rabies?
  81. What is the temperature of human body on Fahrenheit scale…..6.
  82. Swimming pool water is disinfected by which chemical….Chlorine.
  83. Blindness is caused by deficiency of which vitamin….Vitamin A.
  84. Vitamin C is the richest in which fruit…..
  85. Soda water is carbonated by mixing what ….
  86. One mile has how many kilometers…..6km.
  87. What is the unit of energy….Joule?
  88. What is the filament of electric bulb made of……Tungsten.
  89. What is added in lead pencils…..Graphite?
  90. How does sunlight enter the rooms….irregular reflection?
  91. How many colors are visible in the sunlight…..Seven colors?
  92. Which metal is liquid at room temperature……Mercury?
  93. Which of these is negatively charged…..Electron.
  94. What happens to the volume of water when it freezes….
  95. Digestion starts from….Mouth.
  96. In clinical term we measure temperature…..Fahrenheit.
  97. Red blood cells are produced by…….Bone marrow.
  98. X-rays were discovered by….Rontgen.
  99. Red color + green color +blue color= White color
  100. Short-sighted defect could be corrected by using…Concave mirror.
  101. Severe deficiency of vitamin D results in …….Rickets.
  102. Ozone layer protects our earth from……..from the sun. Ultraviolet rays.
  103. If boiling water in a pot is put on a stove with full flame. The temperature of the water will be……Remained constant.
  104. The process of producing genetically identical organism is called…..Cloning.


  1. ASF acts in collaboration with which force…..Police.
  2. Who is in charge of law and order at district level in Pakistan…..DPO?
  3. Which ministry makes decision on question of important national security policy….Ministry of Defence?
  4. A person who can be subjected to the checking /body checking in air port premises by ASF staff……..Against whom reasonable suspicion of subversion exists.
  5. ASF operates under act …..1975 airport security force act.
  6. IED stand for……Improvised explosive Device.
  7. What should an investigator do about his identity during an investigation….Identity with the actual identity as on his card?
  8. Police verification is needed for……Government job.
  9. Clearance report …….before the entrance, after the entrance.
  10. FIR stands for…..First investigation report.
  11. IDP stands for ….Internal displaced person.
  12. Framing of security policies for 3 agencies is the responsibility of……ISI, FIA,
  13. CCTV cameras are installed for…..Monitoring.
  14. Vehicles are checked by …..Mirror.
  15. Poor law and order causes……Insecurity, unemployment, poverty, all.
  16. Causes of terrorism in Pakistan…..Political instability, economic backwardness, all.
  17. In case of threat …..Call senior, dispose threat, shout for help.
  18. The basic checks ……all persons and goods, suspected only, unknown.
  19. PD 4C devices detect explosive material through…..smell, explore, none.]
  20. Racial extermination of a particular group or group of people is called…..Genocide.


  1. If a number is divided by 6 and added 50 which equals to 60, find the number….60.
  2. Area and volume of triangle at 90 degree having one side 12cm and other 90cm..
  3. An electric train is travelling east –west at 100 km/h.The wind is blowing from the north to south at 60km/h,in which direction would smoke go….it is electric train no smoke.
  4. Aaaa power 3=4 a power.
  5. Some friends went for picnic, they decided to buy eatables for Rs 96 ,4 friends refused to make the payment due to which every friend has to pay Rs 4 more than before what is the total number of friends….8.16.12.
  6. 2 tickets of A to B and 3 tickets of A to C were of 77,3 tickets of A to B and 2 tickets of A to C  were 73.rates of A to B and A to C ….13,17.
  7. Age of ABC is 80. What was their total age 3 years ago…71
  8. Largest number is…..70, 7.07, 7.007.
  9. Smallest number…..0.2, 0.02, 0.002.
  10. 5 rupees 7 peasas equal to 07.
  11. 20=4+4x ….=4
  12. Y =12-3x if y=5 then x =?….7/3
  13. Average of sum of 1st five natural number ….
  14. Square root of 49=
  15. Right angle …..90 degree.
  16. 3+4×5….23.
  17. Square of 1 is…
  18. 200% of 800….1600.
  19. Ratio of 24 and 64….3:8.
  20. 53/1000….053.
  21. 0x5+7-16=-9.
  22. A2+B2= (A+B) (A-B).
  23. x>=5…..x is greater than and equal to 5.
  24. 110 m long train travel with the speed of 60 km/h, how it will take to cross 190m bridge…18sec
  25. Greatest value ……7/10,9/16,4/5
  26. 1/3rd of a number is 25 number is…75
  27. Complete the series :1,5,17, and 85…..none
  28. A student needed 35% marks to pass an exam ,he secured 235 marks and failed by 29 marks , what were the total marks ….750
  29. If 2x + 2x + 2x= 12 then what is the value of x in 2x…2
  30. If a man invested Rs 3000 for 4 months and got some profit, how much money should he invest to get such a profit in a month….12000?
  31. The average of 8 numbers is 12, if each number is increased by 2 the average of the new set of number is ….
  32. What is the amount of income tax to be paid by a person having income of Rs 55000?
  33. If 6 men and 14 women complete a work in 10 days, how much time will 12 men and 14 women will take to complete the same work..
  34. If a thing was purchased at x rates and sold at the profit of 20% what would be the selling price…
  35. If 5 taps fill a tank in 40 minutes if 1 tap is out of order then in how many minutes tank will be filled…50 minutes.
  36. Average of multiples of 10 from 10 to 190…10+20+30+40+50+60+70+80+90+100+110+120+130+140+150+160+170+180+190=1900/19.100
  37. Total 78 students, 41 in French and 23 in German, among them 9 take both German and French .how many don’t take any language…
  38. 150% of 48 is…
  39. 160 weight to 152, what % reduced ….5%.
  40. –(2)x3+(2)x3=2×3
  41. 0,1,2,3,5,7,11,13,17,…19
  42. (-2) x9+ (2) x9….
  43. 35-17+5…..
  44. Complete the series 012358…..
  45. Which is the prime number…19,2,37,all
  46. A straight fence is to be constructed from posts 6 inches wide and separated by length of chain 5 feet long, if a certain fence begins and ends with a post ,which of the following could not be the length of fence in feet,(12 inches=1foot)…17,28,35,non
  47. 2 cars moving in opposite direction with 8km/h speed difference b/w both covers a total distance of 208miles in 2hours, calculate the average velocities.
  48. How many combinations of word STUDY can be made….
  49. 2, 6, 18, 54……
  50. A man has 180 pens and 9 of them are blue, how much %has he blue pens.5% .
  51. A boy has 68 marks that is 85% what were total marks…80 marks.
  52. A man bought a thing on 120 rupees and he has 25% discount what is actual price he paid…
  53. Smallest natural number is….
  54. Smallest prime number is……
  55. Five years ago the age of father was thrice the age of son ,if son is 30 years old now what is the current age of father…80 years
  56. 30% amount of total is left after spending 280 rupees what was the amount before spending…400
  57. Mean of 10, 30 Y and 50 is 50 Y is…
  58. Boy can type 1350 words in 30 minutes ,how many he could type in 5 minutes …225
  59. Number of students in a class is 30.3/5 are girls then how many boys are there in class? Girls are 18 and boys are 12.
  60. X: 3=4:6 then x=?
  61. 32-15×2+3=-
  62. 2, 6, 12, 20….42, 56...30.
  63. 1, 2, 5, 14…
  64. 2 power3 + 2 power 3= 2power6
  65. 3x square-7x +23 but x=2…..19
  66. If 2x: 5y =3:4 then x: y =15:8.


 Note: if you would like to really get something then don’t wait for the ideal time. This is your ideal time and just go through it. For MCQs get some good one book either of Dogars/ Jhanangir Series or Caravan Especially of Chaudhary Ahmed Najeeb . Well, the last one book if read in very well  then almost 120 MCQs of your CSS are almost covered. Isn’t that interesting thing??





























Editorial Mounting Tensions- Daily Dawn

EARLY one and a half billion people in two countries India and Pakistan appear to be held hostage to conspiracy, rumour and reckless warmongering. That needs to stop, and it needs to stop immediately. On Thursday, 11 days after the Uri attack and seemingly an eternity in Pak-India sabre-rattling and diplomatic tensions, another layer of confusion and chaos was added to one of the world`s most complicated bilateral relationships.

With the facts of the Uri attack yet to be established or shared with the world, a new, potentially larger, set of questions has now overshadowed an already fraught situation. What happened along the Line of Control between midnight and early morning on Thursday is a story that Indian authorities appear to be very clear about and the Indian media has reported with relish. But virtually nothing has been independently confirmed about the events along the LoC, an area that is effectively cordoned off from the media in both countries and where the local population is unlikely to know the facts or be willing to speak candidly.

What is clear is that something did happen at several points along the LoC in the early hours of Thursday morning. At the very least, Pakistani and Indian forces exchanged fire in which two Pakistani soldiers died. That is a sad, if long-standing, reality of the region: whenever tensions between the two countries are high, parts of the LoC see live ammunition fired, the lives of local populations disrupted and several casualties among security personnel and civilians. Indeed, two summers ago, with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi newly installed in of fice, the LoC saw a series of skirmishes that progressively escalated until reaching crisis point around mid-October. That set of events was supposedly meant to herald the start of a new, so-called gettough policy by India. Eventually, better sense prevailed and by September 2015 the DG Rangers and DG Border Security Force met and agreed to renew the LoC ceasefire. The Pathankot attack earlier this year, which involved infiltration across the Working Boundary, did not materially change the situation along the LoC, but unrest in India-held Kashmir and the Uri attack appear to have done so.

At this point, it is imperative to establish the facts quickly.

The wild cheering that greeted the government`s accounts of events in India may become a dangerous precedent and create a new set of expectations in a region where war in an overtly nuclear environment would be catastrophic for both countries.

Facts, however, would help nudge the situation towards deescalation, given signalling from the Pakistani state and Indian government. Pakistani policymakers, both civilian and military, have reacted sensibly, and appear to be resisting Indian attempts to bait Pakistan. But the media echo chamber jingoistic, fiercely nationalistic and often removed from reality can have unpredictable effects, especially when it comes to whipping up warlike sentiment among the populations of the two countries.

Quickly establishing two sets of facts, of events along the LoC on Thursday and the Uri attack, would switch a media narrative from punch and counter-punch and allow the two states to work on how to ratchet down tensions along the LoC. The Modi government, despite its hawkish instincts and muscle-flexing, has indicated an awareness of the dangers of unrestrained rhetoric. Facts will help clear the miasma and introduce the necessary rationality into a debate that is increasingly unhinged.

Clearly, the problems in the region are not unilateral and onedirectional. Pakistan has pursued flawed policies in the past and could do more to help end the menace of terrorism in the region. But this is not an area of straightforward cause and effect, nor are the broader issues of the Pak-India relationship of immediate relevance.

First and foremost, the priority of the leaderships of Pakistan and India should be to ensure that no matter what the circumstances and no matter what the concerns, the path to war is not taken.

India suffered a blow in Uri as it did in Pathankot. It has a right to expect justice and Pakistan has a responsibility to investigate any links to citizens of this country. But what has been unleashed in India since the seemingly exaggerated claims of so-called surgical strikes along the LoC is frightening and wildly destabilising. If now is not a propitious time for a dialogue of peace, it is the time for some serious introspection. Only a few days ago, the Indian prime minister talked of a joint war against poverty; he must now also resist the poverty of ideas and the temptation to take the low, dangerous road.

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Reference: Today’s Daily Dawn Editorial